Home / THE DATUM ON THE REGIMENTS THAT WERE PART OF THE GENERAL AND EARL P. PANIN’S SECOND ARMY IN 1769-1770…

... THE DATUM ON THE REGIMENTS THAT WERE PART OF THE GENERAL AND EARL P. PANIN’S SECOND ARMY IN 1769-1770… ...

Офицер драгунского полка, середина XVIII века

Most of the regiments that were part of the P. Panin’s Second Army were army units of the so-called Ukrainian line, created by Peter the Great to protect the southern borders of the country from the Tatars and Poles’ raids. As a rule, such regiments were land-police regiments, so-called colonized regiments, tied to a single, specific territory. There were many divisions in the land-police among the irregular regiments, but there were also those that were created by Bogdan Khmelnitsky: Little Russian and Company one were among them. Part of the regiments were the one of the new territorial entity -  New Serbia, created by immigrants from Serbia, namely Raiko Preradovich and Ivan Shevich, who moved to Russia with a significant number of their fellow tribesmen. A significant part of the army was made up of the Don Cossacks, which also included Kalmyk units.

The regular, i.e. the most trained part of the army, included regiments of the Carabineer, Dragoons, Infantry with a separate grenadierial regiment, as well as the Chaser troops. The regular army also included artillery, engineering, and pontoon units. The irregular (non-permanent) army included such regiments as hussars, light cavalry, Little Russian regiments and, as mentioned above, regiments of Don Cossacks with Kalmyks assigned to the army.

A significant part of the regiments was part of the Ukrainian corps formed in 1763, and in 1766 all the regiments became part of the Ukrainian division specially formed for the war with the Turks, which was transferred to the subordination of the Governor - General of Little Russia, P. Rumyantsev. When he saw the lack of training especially of infantry regiments associated with their organization, structure and recruitment, since 1769 he began leading them to the organization of army infantry regiments, including appropriate retraining.

Many of the regiments listed below didn’t survive until the early 19th century. Some of them were disbanded, some were re-formed, and the other was sent to strengthen and replenish the newly created regular and irregular units of the Russian army.

THE DATUM ON THE REGIMENTS THAT WERE PART OF THE GENERAL AND EARL P. PANIN’S SECOND ARMY IN 1769-1770

CARABINER REGIMENTS

On January 17, 1763, six months after the beginning of the Empress Catherine’s II reign, she reorganized the cavalry. Six horse-grenadierial regiments: Riga, St. Petersburg, Narva, Ryazan, Kargopol and Astrakhan, as well as 13 dragoon regiments: Archangelogorod, Nizhny Novgorod, Tver, Tobolsk, Novgorod, Rostov, Perm, Ingermanland, Siberian and others were named carabineer. 

The new carabineer regiments are modeled after the French army. They consisted of 5 squadrons. Their weapons are the carbine and broadsword. Carabineers were first introduced to the army in Spain in the XV century. In the described period, they were widely and very effectively used in all the armies of Europe.

The term “carabineer” itself is derived from “carbine”. This is a light-weight firearm. It was used mainly for arming cavalry. It differed from the infantry rifle by a shorter barrel length, and therefore less weight. The word “carbine” comes from the Arabic “carab”, that means “weapon”.

The carabineers acted in battles as follows. They lined up on the flanks of the light horse troops, and in several rows, and at the beginning of the battle jumped up to the enemy. When the enemy was 100-200 paces away, a volley of firearms followed, as they said, in a line, after which the carabineers retreated behind the cavalry.

On the 24th of April, 1763, the list of weapons, ammunition and other items in the Carabineer regiments was approved.

Their uniform looked like as follows: the caftan is blue, and the collar, lapels, cuffs and lining are red; red doublet with sleeves; cupreous buttons; black leather tie with white lining; elk trousers; hat with a helmet with gold braid and red tassels. A horse’s attire is similar to the Dragoons’, but of red color.

1. Rostov carabineer regiment

The regiment was formed in August 1706 as Colonel Tikhon Streshnev’s dragoon regiment in Moscow by the boyar Streshnev from commoners of Ukrainian cities, monastic servants and boyar people. On March 30, 1756, the regiment was re-formed as part of two Grenadier and 10 Dragoon companies with the addition of an artillery command to the regiment. Until 1763, the regiment was a dragoon one. Since January 14, 1763, it was named the Rostov carabineer regiment. In 1766, it was added to the Ukrainian division with a permanent deployment in the city of Starodubov. It is known from the literature that the regiment captured one of the enemy’s batteries during the storming of the Bendery fortress. Since 1796, it received again the name “dragoon”. In 1800, it was disbanded and sent to reinforce other dragoon regiments.

2. Yamburg carabineer regiment

The regiment was formed in 1707 as the Ustyuzhsky dragoon regiment from recruiting tradespeople.  From November 1712, it was named the Yamburg dragoon regiment. From January 14, 1763, it was named the Yamburg carabineer regiment, consisting of five squadrons of two troops each. In 1766, the regiment became part of the Ukrainian division, stationed in Bubnov.

3. Pskov carabineer regiment

In July 1701, the head of the Kazan and Astrakhan orders, the boyar Prince Boris Golitsyn, formed a 10-company Dragoon regiment in Moscow in the Golden Chamber from nobles, reiters and their children- ignoramus – Moscow region and upper lower cities of the Oka river, named after its first commander, the dragoon regiment, Colonel Fyodor Novikov. On March 10, 1708, the regiment was named the Pskov dragoon regiment. On January 14, 1763, the Pskov carabineer regiment was added to five squadrons.

In 1766, the regiment became part of the Ukrainian division, stationed in Poltava. In 1769, the commander of the regiment was a brigadier, Prince Ivan Bagration. Among the famous people, in 1778, the young cornet M. I. Barclay-de-Tolly joined the regiment. 

DRAGOON REGIMENTS

Dragoons (from the French “Dragon” literally “dragon”) are cavalry warriors, trained to fight both on horseback and dismounted formations.

For the first time this term appeared in France in the XVI century, when during the siege of Piedmont, the French Marshal Brisac put on horses brave and dexterous infantrymen who proved very well in combat.

In Russia, Dragoons belonged to the medium, linear cavalry. In different armies, they were also referred to as mounted infantry or mounted riflemen. In Russia, the first Dragoon regiments were formed by Tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich in 1631 from foreign mercenaries. In 1634, a second attempt was made to organize Dragoon regiments, resulting in three such regiments of 1,000 men each, but all the officers in it were only foreigners.

By the end of the reign of Alexey Mikhailovich, the Russian army had already 11,000 Dragoons, which were armed with muskets, later carbines, pistols, swords, axes and short spears-pikes. Under Peter I, 12 Dragoon regiments were created in 1702, and by the end of 1708 there were already 36 Dragoon regiments and one Dragoon squadron in Russia. Until the appearance of the cuirassiers in 1731, Dragoons were the only regular cavalry in Russia.

Already by 1763, the tactics of the battle began to change, when the bold and rapid attack by lines of cavalry armed with cold weapons, goes by the wayside, so the number of Dragoon regiments was reduced to only seven. The revival of Dragoon regiments occurred only by the Patriotic war of 1812. 

1. The Borisoglebsk dragoon regiment

It was created on January 15, 1731 as the Borisoglebsk horse regiment of the Ukrainian land-police (colonized army) in the city of Borisoglebsk. On March 19, 1736, the regiment was re-formed into a mounted regiment. From December 15, 1763, the Borisoglebsk Dragoon land-police regiment. The regiment consists of a headquarters and two dragoon companies. By 1766, it was part of the Ukrainian division and was stationed in Kharkiv. On January 16, 1769, it was named the Borisoglebsk dragoon regiment, and was relocated to Pereslavl. During the campaign on Bendery was equated to infantry regiments. Before Bendery, except for the protection of the Ukrainian line, he did not participate in battles and fights. In 1775, it was attached to the Astrakhan dragoon regiment to strengthen it.

2. Astrakhan Dragoon regiment

The regiment under this name is listed in the P. Panin’s Second army in the order for troops, but it is very difficult to determine which specific regiment it was. Russian army service and inspection lists for the period from 1730 to 1796 included eight regiments named Astrakhan. Three Dragoons, one of which is garrison; 2 grenadierial, one of which is horse- grenadierial; 1 carbineer and 2 infantry. But, directly in the company of 1769-1770, the regiment with this name is not listed in the army. At the same time, none of the Astrakhan regiments were part of the Ukrainian division. Most likely, we are talking about the Astrakhan infantry regiment, later the Astrakhan grenadierial regiment, which was formed on June 25, 1700 by Prince Trubetskoy from 850 recruits in Novgorod as the Roman Bruce infantry regiment consisting of two battalions. Before the described events, it changed its name to the Vologda and 2-nd St. Petersburg infantry regiment, but on the 5th of July, 1762, it was returned to its first name. Since 1757, it was stationed in Velikiye Luki.

From 17630 to 1770, the regiment commander was Colonel I. V. Gudovich, one of the famous people, in 1783, prince P. Bagration began serving as a soldier in the regiment. In the period 1762-63, the chief of the regiment was Alexander Suvorov, so in some documents the regiment is called Suvorov.

INFANTRY REGIMENTS

An infantry (rifle) regiment is the main combined-arms tactical unit in the land forces in the armies of Russia and Europe.

The first such regiments were formed in the early 1630s as regiments of a new order of regular companies, each of which was a permanent formation of 8-12 troops and counted from 1,600 to 2,000 people.

Since the second half of the XVIII century, infantry regiments have been widely used in the armies of most states. In Russia, the first twenty seven 10-troops infantry regiments were created under Peter the Great in 1699. At the beginning of the 18th century, there was also a transition to a battalion structure and infantry regiments were incorporated into infantry brigades and infantry divisions.

As a rule, infantry regiments were part of infantry brigades or infantry divisions and fought as part of them. There were also separate infantry (rifle) regiments that were directly part of the army and other associations.

In the time of Peter I the structure of infantry formations looked like this:

1. Rifle regiments

2. Elective and guards’ regiments

3. Soldiers’ regiments formed before 1699

4. Soldiers’ groups formed from 1699 to 1725.

5. Training soldiers’ regiments

6. Complete soldiers’ regiments

As a rule, all regiments had a two-battalion composition, already under Elizabeth Petrovna’s reign the number of regiments was increased; in 1747, a third battalion of 4 musketeer company was added to the two existing ones. In 1753, the number of grenadierial companies in the regiment increased to three; the battalion now included 1 grenadierial and 4 musketeer companies. However, this composition did not last long: after 3 years, the Grenadier companies of the second battalions became part of the formed four numbered grenadierial regiments. Each of them consisted of 10 companies, divided into two battalions. The high quality of these new regiments was already noted in 1757 even by a foreign observer who was not too friendly to the Russians: “The main strength of their army consists in the grenadierial regiments, and truly, all such soldiers are thick and strong people...”.

By that time, all infantry regiments were required to be equipped with artillery. Each regiment was assigned 4 copper three-pounder guns and 8 six-pounder mortars. The gun park was completely transferred to the Department of the regiment, and the servants were equipped with the ranks of the regiment at the rate of 9 people per gun and 12 spare ones. This farm was managed by an artillery officer who was enlisted in the regiment’s staff and wore a regimental uniform. From 1757 the guns were replaced with quarter-barrel (twelve-pounder) licornes, but they were not enough. The army was also supplied with eight-pound licornes, as well as “secret” howitzers that fired buckshot. There was a fusilier in each company; he was skilled in the intricacies of artillery fire.

Below, we will talk about the Grenadierial  regiment, so, as mentioned above, it was the elite of the army. The Grenadier is originally a type of infantry designed for throwing hand grenades (grenadiers), which first appeared in Europe during the 30-year war of 1618-1648. Only since 1667, the grenadiers begin to exist as a special branch of the army, and get their own organization. In Russia, Grenadier units began to be created at the end of the XVII century. First, special teams of grenadiers were introduced into the regiments, and already under Peter I, one company of this type of troops was introduced into each infantry regiment. In addition to the infantry, the Grenadier began to enter already in the cavalry units. Their tasks, in addition to throwing grenades, expanded significantly, and they were considered the elite of the infantry and in battle rushed to the most dangerous areas to break through the enemy’s defense or contain it. Peter also created five independent Grenadier regiments, which were completed exclusively from tall, brave and proven soldiers and officers.

By the so called “our” described period, there were four Grenadier infantry regiments in Russia that did not have proper names. They were named only in 1775. These are: 1st Life Guards Grenadier infantry regiment, 2nd Tavrichesky, 3rd Ekaterinoslavsky and 4th Fanagoriysky.

1.  The 2nd Grenadierial infantry regiment (later known as the 2nd Taurian Grenadier and 6th Taurian Grenadierial regiment).

One of the four regiments formed on March 30, 1756 during the restoration of separate Grenadierial units in Russia. It was formed from Grenadierial companies that were expelled from St. Petersburg, Novgorod, Siberia, Azov, Voronezh, etc. infantry regiments as the 2nd Grenadierial regiment, consisting of two battalions of 5 companies. It was initially stationed in revel, and then near Riga. In Bendery, in addition to General tasks, it also guarded the main headquarters of the army.

 2. Voronezh infantry regiment

The regiment was formed in Moscow by General Weide on June 25, 1700, as part of 10 companies, under the name of the Fedor Balka’s infantry regiment.

Weide, after the death of F. Lefort in March 1699, took command of the Lefort regiment and was granted the rank of Brigadier-General. In 1703, a Grenadierial company was formed under the regiment; on March 10, 1708, the regiment was named the Voronezh infantry regiment.

From February 16 to November 13, 1727, the regiment was called the 5th Moscow infantry regiment. On October 28, 1731, the Grenadierial company was destroyed, and the regiment was added to 8 Fusilier companies.
On January 14, 1763, the regiment was transferred to 2 battalions with an artillery team. Subsequently, the regiment ceased to exist under its own name in connection with the transfer of its battalions to replenish the Azov and Morshansky infantry regiments. It is the Morshansky regiment that takes its seniority from the Voronezh regiment.

3. Chernihiv infantry regiment

As well as the Voronezh regiment, it was formed by General Weide on June 25, 1700 under the name of the infantry von Schweden regiment consisting of 10 companies. In 1705, it was called the Gassenius’s infantry regiment, and from March 10, 1708, the Chernihiv infantry regiment. Also in its history, it was named after the Uglitsky infantry regiment. In terms of recruitment, it completely repeats the Voronezh regiment. In history, the regiment is known for supporting the Decembrist uprising in 1725, led by Lieutenant Colonels Muravyov-Apostolov and Bestuzhev. In January 1826, it was defeated by government troops, as a result of which it was re-formed, more than 800 people of the regiment were demoted to soldiers and exiled to the Caucasus.

4. Belevsk (Beletsk) infantry regiment

The regiment was formed as a result of the general reform of the Russian army on December 15, 1763, as part of two battalions, each of which had 1 Grenadierial and 5 musketry companies, and was included in the Ukrainian land-police corps. The regiment was formed from small-scale nobles, later deprived of the title of nobility and called smallholders, one of the categories of state peasants formed to carry out patrol and guard service on the southern border, obliged to serve for 15 years. The regiment finally received its name on January 16, 1769. From 1765, the regiment was commanded by Colonel Nikolai Glebov. The campaign on Bendery was the regiment’s first trial by fire. From the battle book and the history of the regiment, it is known that upon arrival in Bendery, when the army crossed the river Bull, it took part in repelling the attack of the Turkish cavalry. Also, a special troop was allocated from this regiment to strengthen the corps of General Kamensky for the siege of the fortress from the East, on the left side of the Dniester river.

From famous personalities on April 7, 1795, Brigadier Prince Dmitry Lviv was appointed commander of the Belevsk regiment.

5. Bryansk infantry regiment

Like many of the above-mentioned regiments, this regiment was formed on April 4, 1723 as a regiment of the Ukrainian land-police, under the name of Colonel Ivanenkov. It received its permanent name on February 16, 1727, as well as the other five similar newly formed regiments, at the place of its cantonment. The regiment was mounted and divided into 10 companies. It had a staff of 1,500 people, but according to the lists for 1732, the personnel was 1,053 units. Initially, the regiment was formed from recruits; the recruited were mostly from cities (towns) Khotmyzhsk, Rylsk, Volny and Miropol. Subsequently, temporarily the system of recruitment of land-police regiments began to have a definite territorial character and only natives of the Bryansk lands could serve in this regiment.

The newly formed regiments, including the Bryansk regiment, were part of the Ukrainian division, transferred to the subordination of the General-in-chief, Governor-General of Little Russia, President of the Little Russian Collegium, chief of the Little Russian regiments and Zaporozhye Cossacks Count P. A. Rumyantsev. The same decree ordered the division to be equipped, as before, with the Ukrainian corps, with South Russian smallholders. Before the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1774, seeing the insufficient training of these regiments, Rumyantsev began to transform them into infantry and Dragoon regiments with appropriate training in 1769. After the capture of Bendery, on November 8, 1770, all the land-police regiments were brought across the States to the usual old army regiments.

It was this regiment that gave its ribbons from flags to the newly formed Bryansk infantry regiment in 1806.

6. Yelets infantry regiment

In fact, the regiment was formed on February 2, 1713, when Peter I established the settlement troops to protect the southern border of the state. Then the infantry regiments of Zhdanov, Grigorov, Vorontsov, Bulart and Postelnikov were formed with the addition of Dragoons, soldiers, Cossacks and artillerymen to strengthen the garrison troops of the Kiev province, they were re-formed into 7 dismounted regiments (100 people each) and they formed this settled army. On December 15, 1763, when the Ukrainian corps was reorganized, consisting of 20 mounted regiments, one Borisoglebsky horse and 10 dismounted regiments were created, one of which was Yelets. It was formed as part of two battalions, each of which had one Grenadierial and five musketry companies. It is from this date that the regiment traces its seniority.

It received its name on the basis of the Decree of the Senate № 6279 of December 11, 1732, as well as other regiments of the land-police. On January 16, 1769, the regiment was named Yelets infantry. In the statement of the Church of the regiment, preserved in the archive, there is this record: “On January, 16, 1769 Yelets regiment was named infantry one and at the beginning of 1769, it participated in repelling the raids of the Crimean Tatars on little Russia, and then participated in the siege of the fortress of Bendery and taking it by storm. On September 15/16, 1770, before the offensive, a prayer service was performed by the regimental priest. This information is taken from the description of the war with the Turks in 1769-1774.” Some sources have information that at Bendery in 1770, the Grenadierial companies of the regiment took part in the battles with the Turks, and during the assault, two companies of the regiment distinguished themselves in the storming column of Colonel Wasserman.

7. Kozlovsk infantry regiment

In 1657, as a result of the military-administrative reform, which assumed the creation and permanent existence of a large military unit of the Belgorod regiment, units were created in Yablonovo, near Belgorod from the previously established in 1653 settled regiments of Alexander Krafet, Yagan Krafet and John Leslie. These regiments, as a militia, had already taken part in the war with Poland in 1654, at the end of which they were dismissed to their homes.

It was then, in 1657, that the 3rd soldier’s Kozlovsk regiment was created, which was commanded by Colonel Ronort. It included mostly old soldiers recruited in 1653, as well as boyar children. The initial strength of the Kozlov regiment was 1,575 men.

After the rifle rebel and its suppression, many of the old regiments were disbanded. In 1711, permanent garrisons were established in Russia, which included the remaining rifle and reiter regiments, as well as hussars, spearmen and town Cossacks. Garrison regiments were named after provinces and cities. At this time, the Kozlovsk garrison regiment was formed, which together with the Tambov (Tambov) and other regiments (Korotkoyaksk, Yeletsk, and Pavlovsk) were part of the garrison of the Oseredsk fortress (now Pavlovsk, Voronezh region). Later, the regiment was renamed the 3rd  Simbirsk, then the Belgorod garrison regiment was named Kozlovsk, and Simbirsk became Samara. In 1732, the regiment became known as the garrison Kozlovsk infantry regiment. On December 15, 1763 the twenty mounted regiments that made up the Ukrainian land-police were reorganized into eleven dismounted and one mounted regiments, including Kozlovsk.

The first battalion of the Kozlovsk regiment was settled at the fortress of St. Fedor, the second – at the fortress of Kozlovsk. In 1742, the regiment consisted of 1,386 men, 87% of whom were recruited from Kozlov.

8. Kursk infantry regiment

It was actually shaped like land-police regiment in 1725, under the name of Kigich’s regiment. It received its name of Kursk on November 6, 1727. Since January 15, 1731, it became part of the Ukrainian land-police of Southern Russia. The history of the regiment is similar in many ways to the land-police regiments listed above. The seniority of the regiment is indicated from October 1, 1763, when the Kursk regiment of the Ukrainian corps was officially formed. Subsequently, it gave his battalions to replenish the Smolensk and Yaroslavl regiments, it is the latter that leads its seniority from the Kursk regiment.

9. Orlov infantry regiment

The first military formation in the Russian army, which bore the name “Orlovsk”, was formed in accordance with the decree of Emperor Peter II of November 6, 1727. This normative act was intended to regulate the Affairs of the Ukrainian land-police – the original element of the military organization of the Russian Empire, which existed intermittently in 1713-1763. According to its provisions, all land-police regiments that were available at that time were named not by the names of the commanders who formed them, but by the names of southern Russian cities or counties. So, the horse regiment of Lviv now received the name “Oryol horse regiment”. In 1732, the regiment had a strength of 1046 people (2 battalions) and was formed mainly from recruits from Voronezh and Old Oskol. The first battalion of the regiment was settled near the new Orlovsk fortress, named after the regiment, the second in the fortress of St. Paraskevas. According to the establishment approved in 1734, the Oryol horse regiment was to have 1077 men, including 4 field-officers and 29 company officers, 70    non-commissioned officers and corporals, 880 lower ranks and 31 musicians. The regiment's seniority dates back to December 15, 1763, when it became known as the Oryol infantry. At that time, the Oryol infantry regiment consisted of two battalions of six companies each. One of the companies of the battalion was an attack company – Grenadierial, the rest was Musketry. It is known from the literature that the grenadiers of the Oryol regiment distinguished themselves during the storming of the Turkish Bendery fortress on September 15-16, 1770.

10. Ryazhsk infantry regiment

It was formed from smallholders by decree of January 15, 1731; and it included the 14 horse regiments of the Ukrainian land-police and was to protect the southern border. On December 11, 1732, it was re-formed as a dismounted one. In 1733, the regiment had a total strength of 603 people from the recruits of Kozlov and Ryazhsk. The first battalion was settled near the fortress of the same name, the second at the Vasilyevsk fortress.

Since March 19, 1736, it is again mounted one, part of the newly created Ukrainian land-police corps, settled on the Ukrainian line.

The regiment was part of the 8th Ukrainian division from 1766. The city of Lubny was designated as the place of his permanent residence. The commander of the regiment from 1764 to 1770 was Colonel (from 1768 Brigadier) Bogdan Wasserman, who received the rank of major General in 1770 “For Bendery” and one of the 1st became a knight of the order of St. George of 4th class .

The regiment subsequently gave its seniority to the newly formed 70th Ryazhsk infantry regiment.

11. Sevsk infantry regiment

To the report submitted in 1732 by General Count Weisbach to the Military Board on the renaming of 20 land-police regiments, a register of regiments that should have had the names of Ukrainian cities was attached. The mounted land-police regiment located in the city of Sevsk was mentioned in this document. In 1732, the regiment’s personnel consisted of 1001 people, recruited from the cities of Livna and Oryol. It was formed simultaneously with Rylsk, Kursk, and Belgorod regiments. In 1775, the regiment’s staff was already 1229 people from the recruits of the cities of Kursk and Oboyan. It completely repeats the history of the above-mentioned infantry regiments. Its seniority also dates back to December 15, 1763, when the Sevsk regiment was formed among the dismounted regiments of the Ukrainian corps, consisting of 2 battalions, each with 1 Grenadierial and 5 Musketry companies.

Since 16.01.1769 it received a name of  Sevsk infantry regiment.

He gave his seniority to the 34th infantry Sevsk Count Kamensky’s regiment. From sources it is known that in 1770 the commander of the regiment was Colonel David Magabeli.

12. Starooskolsk infantry regiment

It was formed on January 15, 1731 as mounted land-police one. It is mentioned simultaneously with the Bryansk and Livensk regiments. Like these regiments, it had two battalions. At the same time, a new Novooskolsk regiment was formed and settled in Novy Oskol. Like the above-mentioned regiments, on January 15, 1763, it was turned into a dismounted regiment, and in 1770 it was assigned to field regiments. In 1770, the commander of the regiment was Colonel Pavlov. The regiment gave its seniority to the 114th Novotorzhsk infantry regiment.

13.  Tambovsk infantry regiment

It was also formed as the mounted land-police one on January 15, 1731, and is mentioned together with the Kozlovsk and Efremovsk regiments. It is known that in 1775 in the regiment there were only 222 people from the recruits of the city of Tambov. One of the battalions was settled at the fortress of Tambov on the Buzova river (now Kharkiv region), the other at the fortress of St. Peter's. As well as the above-mentioned regiments, in 1763 it was turned into a dismounted regiment, and in 1770 it was assigned to field regiments.

In 1770, the regiment's commander was Colonel Mathias Miller, commander of the Central assault column that moved into the gap on the Bendery fortress and who died being one of the first to climb the rampart of the fortress. The 27th and 28th Jaeger regiments were subsequently formed from the regiment’s battalions.

 JAEGER CORPS

The word “jaeger” comes from the German word “Jager”, which means shooter, hunter, specialist in hunting, serving amateur hunters and monitoring compliance with hunting rules. The military meaning of the word “jaeger” refers to a light infantry or cavalry soldier in the armies of most European States. Jaegers as a type of special forces appeared in European armies in the XVII-XIX centuries. As combat-ready military units, the jaegers proved themselves in the 30-year war of 1618-1648. Such groups were formed from former hunters and good shooters.

In the Russian army, the first experimental battalion of Jarger was formed by Field Marshal Count Petr Rumyantsev in 1761. And at the beginning of 1763, the Russian army had a regular light infantry, called Jaeger. For the first time, such units were created in the Finnish division, which was commanded by Count Panin. This was a contingent formed from selected riflemen in the number of 300 people-5 people per company. This experiment was crowned with success, and already in 1765, with 25 infantry regiments (about half of their total number), separate chasseur teams were established consisting of one officer and 65 jaegers. In 1769, such jaegers’ teams were introduced in all infantry regiments, and a year later the reduction of jaegers’ teams into battalions and then into corps began. The latter were made up of special Jaeger regiments.

The purpose of the jaegers was to serve as “skirmishers”, i.e. the search engines going ahead, who were supposed to be able to fight in a loose battle. They had to “make a fire” but not on the Prussian model 30 pace and on their own “manual skill” maximum charge rate and integrity of the butt, which meant the ability to perform so-called “selective targeting”, i.e. sniping “under the priority goals of destruction”.

The jaegers were dressed in a special uniform – a dark green dolman with cords, dark green tight-fitting trousers, as well as a small Jaeger's cap and knee-high boots.

In Panin’s army in 1770, in Bendery, all the jaegers were separated into a special corps, which was used both independently and in cooperation with other regiments and divisions.

IRREGULAR TROOPS IN THE RUSSIAN ARMY

Irregular troops (from the late Latin “irregularis” — incorrect), in contrast to regular troops were troops that do not have a firm and permanent organization or in their recruitment, military service, training, education, uniforms significantly different from regular troops, they equipped themselves, armed themselves, and provided horses by their own. Earlier in Russia, they were the troops consisted of Cossacks and foreign units.

Irregular formations, as highly maneuverable, but poorly armed and insufficiently trained for action in the ranks, were assigned to units and formations of the regular Russian army to perform specific activities for this type of light cavalry, reconnaissance and surveillance, patrols, outposts, ambushes, raids and raids on the rear and pursuit of the defeated fleeing enemy.

When creating such troops, first of all, it was assumed that they would be Cossack troops. Just in the army of Peter Panin the following regiments were presented: of the Don Cossack army, as well as hussars, pikemen, Little Russian Cossacks and other regiments.

HUSSARS

Hussars (Hungarian huszár)—lightly armed horsemen of the XV-XX centuries (along with Uhlans), distinguished by their characteristic clothing: shako (high cylindrical cap with a visor), mentik (fur cape), dolman (short uniform), leggings, boots. In the XV—XVII centuries, they wore light armor, including incomplete armor. In Russia, the hussars were first mentioned in 1634, and also in 1660 (Ivan Khovansky’s hussar company). During Peter the Great’s reign, hussars were recruited from citizens in southern Russia Wallachian, Serbian and other South Slavic people. Under Anna Leopoldovna, Minich transformed all hussar units into 5 settled hussar regiments (Serbian, Georgian, Moldavian, Wallachian and Hungarian).

In 1754, the Serbs Raiko Preradovich and Ivan Shevich entered the Russian service with a significant number of their fellow tribesmen; they were instructed to settle between Bakhmut and Lugansk (Slavo-Serbia) and form 2 hussar regiments of 1 thousand people each, which in 1764 were United into one — the Bakhmut hussar regiment. In 1756, the Sloboda hussar regiment and the Macedonian regiment were formed from Cossacks, Macedonians and Bulgarians. In 1760, another Yellow (Gold) hussar regiment was formed. In total, by 1761, there were 12 hussar regiments in Russia.

Under Catherine II, after various transformations, the hussar regiments were renamed light mounted regiments.

1. Sumsk hussar regiment

On the 27th of June, 1651, the Sumsk Sloboda Cherkasy Cossack regiment was formed from the “Cherkas” who made up the population of the Sloboda-Ukrainian region and came from Little Russian immigrants and those who fled from Polish oppression. In 1731, a regular company of 100 men was established under the regiment. On the 3rd of March, 1765, it was ordered to the Governor of the Sloboda-Ukrainian province by the Prime Major of the Imperial Guard of the Izmailovsky regiment Shcherbinin to reform the regiment with the addition of ranks from the Black, Moldavian, Serbian and Georgian hussar regiments to the Sumsk hussar regiment.

It is known from the literature that in 1769, taking part in the first Russian-Turkish war, the Sumy hussars under the command of Colonel T. I. Tutolmin distinguished themselves in the battle of Bendery, where, having lost only 20 people, they destroyed a large number of Turks and captured 4,000 prisoners and 600 horses. In 1770, the entire Russian army found out about the regiment. A Sumsk hussars’ troop under the command of major General Dedevshin was surrounded by 10 thousand Tatars, but literally cut through their formation, losing 177 people killed and 26 wounded. After destroying a large number of  Turkish soldier, including seven murzas, the hussars captured the enemy flag [2]. This incident, however, was not the only feat. At the end of the war in 1773, the army commander count P. Panin personally presented the Sumsk hussar regiment to the Empress Catherine II. It was then that the Sumsk hussars got the affectionate and respectful nickname “bold Sumsk hussars”. Subsequently, Ya. Kulnev served in the fourth squadron of the regiment.

2. Iziumsk hussar regiment

On June 27, 1651, the Iziumsk Sloboda Cossack regiment was formed from the natives of little Russia, who settled in villages on the right Bank of the Northern Donets and along the banks of the Iziumets river. The main purpose of the Sloboda regiments was to protect the southern borders of Russia. At the same time, the citizens ran a farm and lived in families. Since 1651 there was the seniority of the regiment.

Soon it became known as Kharkiv Sloboda, and in 1688 it regained its name (Colonel Konstantin Donets-Zakharzhevsky). In 1662 and 1666, the Sloboda regiments repelled the raids of the Crimean Tatars, and in 1668 they were awarded by Tsar Alexey Mikhailovich’s creditable letter for their loyalty and bravery. In 1695 and 1698, the Iziumsk regiment recaptured a number of Tatar fortresses on the Danube and operated under Perekop. In 1733, the full-time strength of the regiment was 800 Cossacks. In 1765, a new stage in the life of the regiment came, on March 3, it was renamed hussar (Colonel Zorich), with a staff of six squadrons in the number of 1034 people (based on the approved report of the Military Commission “On the establishment of five field Hussar regiments from Sloboda, on the recruitment and maintenance of these”). In 1768, field Marshal Count Rumyantsev recognized the Iziumsk regiment as the best in Little Russia. In 1770, the commander of the regiment was Lieutenant Colonel Akim Bedryaga.

3. Black and Yellow (Golden) hussar regiments

On December 24, 1751 and January 11, 1752, Colonel Horvath of the Austrian army formed two hussar regiments, named Pandur (from the town of Pandur in Hungary). All the regiments consisted of 20 companies. For the settlement they were assigned the land between the rivers Amelniki and Kavarlyk (feeders of the Dnieper), which was commanded to be called New Serbia. In 1764, two Pandur regiments, together with the Novomirgorod garrison and Serbian hussars, were reorganized into three settled mounted regiments: the Black and Yellow hussars and the Ekaterinoslav pikemen. The yellow hussar regiment was subsequently disbanded on December 24, 1776, and the Black hussar regiment, also known as General Megulnov’s regiment also was disbanded.  

4. Bakhmut (Bakhmuch) hussar regiment. 

As already mentioned above, in 1754, the Serbs Raiko Preradovich and Ivan Shevich formed 2 hussar regiments of 1 thousand people each, which in 1764 were merged into one – the Bakhmut hussar regiment. There were 16 settlements in it. The area, populated Preradovich and Shevich’s companies, was named Slavo-Serbia. It was not part of the province, but was directly subordinate to the Military Division. In 1753, the Military Division established the Slavo-Serbia Commission to organize the colonized hussars’ regiments settlement, recruiting and maintenance. It was located in the city of Bakhmut, which was not part of Slavo-Serbia. There was also the post of chief of Slavo-Serbia, which was initially held by Raiko Depreradovich, and then by Ivan Shevich. The regiment, like the Yellow and Black regiment, was disbanded in 1776, due to the liquidation of the Zaporozhian Cossack host and the creation of new settled regiments.  

PIKEMEN REGIMENTS

Pikeman is a type of infantry in the European armies of the XIV-early XVIII centuries, armed mainly with 5-6-meter pikes. A well-coordinated formation of pikemen was a formidable force in defense, but it was characterized by low mobility when attacking. Similar types of troops appeared in Scotland in the XIII century. Pikemen operated primarily in detachments, lines, or groups. They were effective in defense against close-range units, cavalry, and represented a formidable force for them. In Russia, they were originally called spearmen. In the process of evolution of this kind of troops, spearmen were transferred to horses, and they became light cavalry.

Pikeman regiments were light cavalry regiments of the Russian army that existed from 1764 to 1783 on the territory of the Novorossiysk province and were engaged in protecting its borders from attacks by the Turks, Perekop and Crimean Tatars; also irregular military settlement regiments in the Ukrainian Cossack army. In addition to pikes, they were also armed with carbines and swords.

They were formed after the elimination of the regimental structure in Ukraine from willing service people, part of the Cossacks of the Mirgorod and Poltava regiments, as well as military settlers of New Serbia and Slavo-Serbia. The very first pikeman regiments, created in 1764, were Lugansk and Poltava.

1. Lugansk pikemen regiments

As mentioned above, the regiment was created in 1764 from the disbanded Serbian Pandur regiments and the Bakhmut mounted Cossack regiment, consisting of the Russians, Serbs, Greeks, Macedonians, Bulgarians, Moldovans, Turks and so on, making up the so-called Bakhmut, Mayatsk and Terek Cossacks. The regiment was settled along the Lugan in Slav-Serbia. Administratively, the Luhansk regiment was part of the Bakhmut province of Novorossiysk province, along with the Bakhmut and Samara hussar regiments. Yellow cloth and a black sash were used for uniforms. From famous personalities in 1777, the regiment was commanded by Colonel M. Kutuzov. Subsequently, from this and the Poltava regiments, the Mariupol light mounted regiment was formed in six squadrons.

2. Donetsk pikemen regiment

It was founded in 1764 and settled over the Seversky Donets river. It includes 5 fortresses (the entrenchments) of the former Ukrainian lines: Belevsk, Praskoveisk, Petrovsk, Kozlovsk and Ryazheny.  It also includes 500 attached areas from the Ukraine: Nexvoroschansk, Mayatsk, Tsarichansk, Kitaygorod and Orelsk. Administratively, the regiment was part of the Catherine province of Novorossiysk gubernia, along with the Dnieper pikeman regiment and the Vodolag settlements. The Belevsk fortress of the Donetsk regiment was also the center of the Catherine province. The structure of Donetsk regiment, in particular, was parts of a such companies as: Belevsk, Kozlovsk, Ryazhsk, Nexvoroschansk, Mayatsk, Kitaygorod, Tsarichansk, Orlytsk, Praskoveysk and Petrovsk.

A quarter of each company was made up of dismounted shooter-fusiliers. The rest are mounted pikemen, armed with pikes, swords, and carbines. It is known from the literature that the regiment especially distinguished itself during the capture of the Bendery fortress in 1770.

Blue cloth and a black sash were used for uniforms. On December 24, 1776, the regiment was renamed Ekaterinoslavsk, in 1783 the regiment was disbanded, and the personnel went to replenish the Pavlograd light mounted regiment.

3. Dneprovsk pikemen regiment

It was created on June 9, 1764, it was settled along the Dnieper river from the head of Samara to the border of the former New Serbia. It consisted of 10000 Little Russian mostly southern Poltava regiment: Starosenzharsk, Novosenzharsk, Beletsk, Kobelyatsk, Sokolsk, Kishensk, Perevolochansk, Keleberdyansk, Kremenchug and Vlasovsk. Administratively, the regiment was part of the Ekaterinsk province of Novorossiysk province along with the Donetsk pikeman regiment and the settlements of Starovodolagi and Novovodolagi.

The regiment was divided into 20 companies. The organization of the companies was the same as that of the Donetsk regiment. The former Savo-Serbian hussar regiments’ soldiers served here. Green cloth and a black sash were used for uniforms. The regiment was also disbanded in 1783.

4. Elisavetgrad pikemen regiment

It was named after the fortress of Saint Elisaveta (Elizaveta), founded on December 29, 1751 to protect the New Serbia. Like the above-mentioned regiments, this regiment was also formed in 1764, in accordance with the project of the establishment of the Novorossiysk land-police, to form a settled Uhlan regiment armed with swords and pikes from the personnel of the Novoserbsk companies: there were settlements of Elisavetgrad. It was stationed in the central part of the modern Kirovohrad region and the eastern part of the modern Dnepropetrovsk region. It included 20 companies – we know he name of 17 companies: Murzinka, Bishkov, Ovnyansk, Kulakov, Chervonokamensk, Popelnasta, Orlinsk, Kutsevolovka, Mishurin Rog, Dereevka, Zheltoe, Zelenoe, Verbluzhka, Spasovka, Vershinokamensk, Novaya Adzhamka, Adzhamka. The uniform included a red wool cloth and a yellow sash.

The settled regiment was disbanded in 1783, and was succeeded by the Elisavetgrad light mounted regiment, which became the hussar regiment in 1796 (since 1801 the Elisavetgrad hussar regiment).  

DON COSSACK ARMY

The Don Cossack army is the most numerous of the Cossack troops of the Russian Empire.

The don Cossack army is the first in seniority in the Cossack army since January 3, 1570, when the Don Cossacks received the first Royal Charter from Tsar Ivan the Terrible. Since ancient times, the don army is divided into “upper” and “lower” Cossacks. Military holiday is on October 14, in the day of Protection of the Blessed Virgin. The headquarters of the Don Cossack army was located in the city of Novocherkassk.

The Don army is located in the territory called the don Army Region, which occupied the modern Rostov and Volgograd regions, the North of the Krasnodar territory of the Russian Federation, as well as parts of the Lugansk and Donetsk regions of Ukraine.

The historical name is associated with the Don river (the Azov sea basin).

Before the beginning of the XVIII century. The don Cossack army enjoyed broad autonomy and had self-government: the military Circle (the highest body of government and courts) and elected Executive bodies (ataman, 2 esaul, clerk). During the campaigns, a marching chieftain with unlimited power was chosen. The army was divided into hundreds and fifties, led by sotniks (lieutenant of Cossack troops), men of the “Fifties” and cornets (in the Cossack cavalry). However, in connection with the numerous peasant troops, many of which involved the Cossacks, starting in 1718, the official procedure for the abolition of freedom and independence of the Cossack troops and settlements began. First of all, the electivity of atamans and others was abolished. In 1763, mandatory life-long military service of the Cossacks was introduced; the main occupations of the population in the XVIII century were agriculture and horse breeding.

The Cossack regiment was the main tactical unit of the Cossack army; it was headed by a Colonel, and the regimental staff handled the paperwork. In the Russian army, Cossack units appeared in 1651, when five Sloboda Cherkasy Cossack regiments were formed in Sloboda Ukraine, which were reorganized in 1765 into hussar and Ulan regiments. In the future, each Cossack army put on active service a certain number of regiments of the 1st line; the regiments of the 2nd and 3rd lines were on benefits and were called up for the duration of the war.

In the XVIII-early XIX century. it was customary to call the regiment by the name of the Colonel. Later there were numbers of regiments, fixed by the Charter on military service of the Don Army (1875), extended to other Cossack troops; the name of the Cossack army was added to the regiment number.

The armament of the don Cossacks was very diverse. By the end of the XVIII century, Cossack cold stabbing and firearms were not of the same type, since a significant part of it was captured during wars and campaigns. The Cossacks had Turkish, Persian, Arabic, Hungarian, Polish, Russian and other origin of cold stabbing and firearms. It was constantly missing, often passed from father to son, and was a family asset. The Russian uhlan and hussar peaks played an important role in arming the Cossacks. The pike was selected “by hand” - by weight and length, and had a forged iron tip. Neither the Polish Uhlans nor the armored Austrian cuirassiers could withstand the attack of the Cossacks "in Darts", they suffered significant losses.

Along with the cold, the don Cossacks were armed with firearms – mainly Caucasian rifles with flintlocks and furrowed flint, as well as Asian pistols.

On March 19, 1768, 5879 Don Cossacks were registered as “at enrolment in army ”. Among them there were 2,196 - in Poland; 441 - in Kizlyar; 501-on the Siberian lines; 601-on the Tsaritsyn line; 120-on the Miussky outposts. In addition, the Cossacks were used for the maintenance of postal camps (189), for the investigation of fugitives (380), in the garrisons of Russian cities – in Moscow, Taganrog, Borisoglebsk and Novokhopersk, especially "in Rostov for the delivery of letters and the eradication of thieves" (152) and in the capital's Cherkasy garrison (629). From April 20, 1768, a special team of Esaul Kulikov appeared, which caught robbers on the outskirts of the military lands along the rivers Gnilaya and Bistraya.

In total, the army included: military ataman-1, foremen-51, Esaulov military – 10, marching-2, military interpreters-3, Cossacks-18600. The army was led by a military ataman.

With the beginning of the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1774, a significant part of the Donetsk people was sent to the First shock army of P. Rumyantsev, and the second P. I. Panin with the marching ataman Timofey Grekov (his regiment marched on January 10, 1769) sent regiments of Ivan Gorbikov, Semyon Turov, Karp Kolpakov (from February 17, 1769), Efim Kuteynikov, Alexey Karshin (from November 5, 1768), Mikhail Rebrikov, Osip Loshilin, Ivan Yanov Yonger, Semyon Sulin, Ekim Karpov.

Yefim Kuteynikov’s regiment was sent to the deployment site of the 2nd army before the others. From October 14, 1768, it stood on the Samara river near the Zaporozhian Cossack host.

Even earlier, from May 15, 1768, Semyon Turov’s regiment was stationed on the Dnieper line, and from May 24, 1768, Mikhail Rebrikov’s regiment served in Tavria. And the regiment of Ivan Yanov was stationed at Azov from February 15, 1768.

Gorbikov’s regiment had been stationed in Tavria since March 15, 1767. The remaining regiments were recruited in November 1768 and early 1769.

At the same time, there was a regular rotation of units, regiments and entire Cossack formations between armies and corps; in the end, only three regiments remained in the army of Peter Panin:

1. Kolchakov’s Don Cossack army regiment;

2. Grebnikov’s Don Cossack army regiment;

3. Grekov’s Don Cossack army regiment.

Colonel Grekov’s regiment was the most numerous one in Panin’s army, which amounted to more than three thousand swords.

LITTLE RUSSIAN (COSSACK) ARMY

Army included the Cossacks of the Zaporizhian Host, who swore allegiance to the Russian Tsar.  It is known that as early as 1450, Hetman Rozhinsky made up 10 mounted regiments of Little Russian Cossacks. In 1654 the little Russian Cossacks, under the leadership of Hetman Bogdan Khmelnitsky, took the oath of allegiance to Tsar Alexey Mikhailovich.

The Little Russian Cossack army consisted of 17 regiments at that time [3]. In 1667, 10 regiments of the right side of the Dnieper were transferred to the Polish citizenship. 11 regiments remained in the army. In 1674, 10 regiments of the right side of the Dnieper were again brought into Russian citizenship.

In 1700 - 1721 these regiments participated in the Northern war. Among them were the regiments from Little Russian Cossacks: Poltava’s Ivan Iskra, Ivan Sukhia, Gaditsky, Andrey Gerasimov, Pashekhonsky, Fedkovsky, Lubensky, Pereyaslavsky, Danila Perekrestov, Bekhmetyev and Hetman. In 1722, a Special Little Russian Collegium was established. It was ordered to contain 10 regiments of Little Russian Cossacks: Kiev, Chernihiv, Starodubovsk, Nezhinsk, Pereyaslavsk, Prilutsk, Lubensk, Gadyachsk, Mirgorod and Poltava.

In 1731, a thousand Little Russian Cossacks moved to the Tsaritsyn line and the following year formed the Volga Cossack army. By 1734 The Little Russian Cossack army consisted of 10 regiments: Gadyachsk, Kiev, Lubensk, Mirgorod, Nezhinsk, Pereyaslavsk, Poltava, Prilutsk, Starodubovsk, Chernihiv and three Okhochekon (hired) regiments. In 1741, the Little Russian Cossacks were allowed to move to the Orenburg fortresses. On the 10th of November, 1764, the Hetman’s administration was abolished in Little Russia. On the 28th of June, 1783 in connection with the abolition of the Little Russian regimental structure, the Little Russian Cossacks formed light-horse regiments of the regular army.

 1. Mirgorod Little Russian regiment

The territory of the Mirgorod regiment (territory) began to be settled in the first quarter of the XVII century and in 1625 a Cossack regiment was formed with a regimental center in Lubny. The regiment was supposed to protect the possessions of the Vishnevetsky family on the left Bank of Ukraine from Crimean raids. In 1638, the regiment was disbanded, and hundreds people were included in the Chigirinsk and Pereyaslavsk regiments. At the beginning of the Khmelnytsky’s uprising in 1648, the regiment was restored by the rebellious Cossacks. On October 16, 1649, after the Treaty of Zborovsk, the regiment received official status in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. According to the register of 1649, the regiment had 1600 people. In 1654, after the Pereyaslav Rada, 4792 people were sworn to the regiment according to the jury lists.

In 1723, the regiment had 15000, which consisted of 454 dismounted and 4386 mounted Cossacks. In 1782, the Mirgorod regiment was disbanded, and its territories became part of the Kiev vicegerency. In 1770, the regiment was commanded by Colonel Alexander Bezborodko. 

2. Gadyachsk (Galician [4]) Little Russian regiment

The Gadyatsk (Gadyachsk) regiment is a military administrative unit of the Zaporizhian Host with its capital in Gadyach. The regiment was founded in 1648, disbanded several times, and finally abolished in 1782.

The Gadyachsk regiment formed in 1648, was disbanded in 1649 under the Zborovsky Treaty, hundreds of the regiment were transferred to the Poltava regiment, and the Gadyachsk eldership was created on the territory of the regiment in the ownership of the Hetman of the Zaporozhian Army.

In 1658, the regiment was restored, but was subordinate to the Mirgorod colonels.

In 1660, the Gadyach eldership was liquidated, and its territory was divided between the Mirgorod and Zenkovsk regiments.

In 1672, the regimental center of the Zenkovsk regiment was moved to Gadyach and the regiment returned to its former name.

According to the revision of 1764, the regiment consisted of: the area of 21 hundred, 11 cities, 982 villages and hamlets. The regiment had 21,986 elected Cossacks. In 1770, Colonel Anton Krizhanovsky was the commander of the regiment and Colonel Andrey Gorlenko was the Deputy Colonel (Acting commander).

3. Starodubovsk (Starodubsk) Little Russian regiment

It is an administrative-territorial and military unit of the Zaporizhian Host, which existed from the middle of the XVII century until 1781.

Regimental city-Starodub (now the district center of the Bryansk region). Starodubsk regiment was the most extensive of all ten regiments of little Russia. It included the districts of two ancient centers of the Seversk land – Starodub and Novgorod-Seversk, each of which during the period of feudal fragmentation was the center of an independent Principality. After the formation of The Russian and Lithuanian States, the Seversk land located on their border attracted the claims of both States.

Originally Starodub regiment consisted of 10 sotnias (regimental Starodubsk and Novgorod-Seversk, Sheptkovsk, Pogarsk, Pochepsk, Mglinsk, Drokovsk, Popovogorsk, Bobovitsk and Topalsk), and later hundredth division changed.

In 1763, two judicial administrative-territorial divisions were created on the territory of the regiment — Starodubsk and Pogarsk, and in 1766 three commissariats – Starodubsk, Topalsk and Novgorod-Seversk. According to the revision of 1764, the regiment had the area of 12 hundred, 7050 elected Cossacks, 18107 sub-helpers and 147629 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth people.

By the time of the disbandment of the regiment (1781), it consisted of the following hundreds: two regimental Starodubsk, two Pochepsk, Novomestsk, Topalsk, Mglinsk, Baklansk, Pogarsk, Novgorodsk (Novgorod-Seversk) and Sheptakovsk. At that time, there were 4 cities, 3 towns and 1118 other localities on the territory of the Starodubsk regiment.

In 1770, the regiment was temporarily commanded by Colonel Mikhailo Miklashevsky.

4. Chernihiv Little Russian regiment

Territorial-military-administrative unit of the Zaporozhian Army with its capital in Chernihiv was created in 1648. It was abolished in 1781. Chernihiv regiment was founded in the spring of 1648 during the Khmelnytsky uprising. Legally, the territory and composition of the Chernihiv regiment were registered on October 16, 1649 according to the Zborovsky register. The regiment consisted of 997 Cossacks in territory of 8 sotnias. According to the Zborovsky register, the regiment included the territories of the abolished Borznyansk and Sosnitsk regiments. After the Pereyaslavsk Rada of 1654, a significant number of hundreds of the regiment were transferred to the Nezhinsk regiment. Since 1659, new hundreds began to form in the regiment and by 1672 the regiment numbered 16 sotnias. According to the revision of 1764, the regiment had 9,838 elected Cossacks, 19,810 assistants, and 101,556 souls of the other population in the area of 18 sotnias. The regiment was abolished by decree of Empress Catherine II on September 27, 1781, and its territories became part of the Chernihiv vicegerency. In 1770, the regiment was commanded by Colonel Peter Miloradovich.

5. Lubensk Little Russian regiment

It is an administrative-territorial and military unit of the Zaporizhian Host in the XVII-XVIII centuries, one of the 10 administrative-territorial Cossack regiments of the Zaporizhian Host. The regimental center is the city of Lubny. The regiment was created in 1648. After Zborovsky’s Treaty in 1649, it was attached to the Mirgorod regiment and again restored in 1658. The number of sotnias in the regiment varied from 13 in 1658 to 23 in the XVIII century. In 1658, it included 7 hundred Mirgorod, 4 hundred Kropivnyansk and 2 hundred Poltava regiments.

According to the list of 1723, the regiment had 2687 dismounted and 3968 mounted Cossacks.

As of 1781 the regiment consisted of 23 sotnias: two regimental Lubensk, two Piryatinsk, two Lokhvitsk, two Senchansk, Chernoussk, Yanshipolsk, Glinsk, Romensk, Khmelevsk, Smelyansk, Konstantinovsk, Kurinsk, Gorodisk, Snitinsk, Lukomsk, Goroshinsk, Zhovninsk, Chigirin-Dubrovsk, Yablunivsk. At that time, there were 21 towns and 1,609 villages on the territory of the regiment. Due to the liquidation of the regimental system in Ukraine in 1781, it ceased to exist. Its territory became part of the Kiev and Chernihiv vicegerencies.

6. Nezhinsk Little Russian regiment

Nezhinsky regiment-administrative and military unit of the city army of Zaporozhye region (registered) and Zaporozhye army (Zaporizhian Host) Russia, with the capital of the regiment in the city of Nezhyn since 1649.

Among other major cities of the Cherkassy regiment were Pryluky, Glukhov and Baturin. The last two at different times were the capitals of the Zaporozhye army.

The Nezhinsk regiment was founded in 1648, and expanded in 1653 by joining the neighboring Novgorod-Seversk regiment. During this time period, the regiment consisted of ten hundred Cossacks.

At the numerous requests of the Cossacks, it was decided by the Zemsky Sobor, on October 1, 1653, in Moscow to accept the Zaporozhye Army with all the regiments as subjects of the Russian Tsar. In 1663, the newly formed Starodubsk regiment separated from the Nezhinsk regiment.

In Little Russia, with the judicial reform of 1763, the settled regiments were divided by court cases into districts. The Nezhinsk regiment was divided into three divisions. District police court was established in that area.

In 1782, according to the decree of Catherine II, the regiment, as an administrative unit, was disbanded and included in the Chernihiv vicegerency. On June 28, 1783, the Nezhinsk mounted regiment of the Little Russian cavalry was formed from hundreds of regiments.

 7. Kompaneisky Little Russian regiment 

“Ohotnytsky” (kimpaneisky and serdutsky) Cossack regiments existed in the Ukraine in XVII—XVIII centuries. The official date of formation of company regiments is August 30, 1668. People from “Severia”, Poles, Moldavians and Serbs served in these regiments. The original purpose of the company was only to carry out police duties, they also began to be used in the suppression of popular unrest. The regiment members often exceeded their power, making riots and even murders, which were regularly written to the Russian Tsar by petitioners. These regiments were recruited by the Hetman himself from "eager people" (mercenaries), they did not have a specific territory, were called by the names of colonels and were maintained at the expense of the combined arms first, and then — the state treasury.
In addition to the Kompaneisky regiment in Little Russia, there were also Serdutsky regiments. Serduki (from the tour. sürtük “guide, spy”, or angry). Serdutsky infantry regiments were also maintained at the expense of the Hetman's Treasury and were the personal guard of the Hetman.
Under Hetman Mazepa, by 1709, the number of such regiments had grown to 10 – 5 Kompaneisky and 5 Serdutsky. There was another regiment, the personal guard of the Hetman “company korogwe court”. It was Mazepa who began to use these regiments as military ones.
Before Poltava, most of the regiments changed Peter I, went to the Swedes with Mazepa. Only 3 Kompaneisky regiments of the Colonels Chugin, Kolbaev and Khvedkov and one Serdutsky regiments of Burlyaev remained true to him. In 1726, the Serdutsky regiment was abolished, and in 1746 the remaining company regiments received numbers from 1 to 3.
According to the reports of the Russian army on May 30, 1756, the cavalry just mentioned three Kompaneisky Little Russian regiments: Chernihiv, Kiev, Novgorod-Seversky.
For the first time regiment took part in combat operations in the seven years' war, being under the unified command of Carp Chesnokov. All the military leaders recognized that the company regiments were much better prepared than the usual Cossack ones. In the army of Panin, the regiment was represented by only one battalion. In the Order for troops, the regiment was named the second, i.e. Kolbaev’s regiment (Kiev). Later it was transferred to the command of Colonel Serebryakov.

In 1776, all three Kompaneisky regiments were converted to light regular regiments, and in 1785 to carabiniere regiments.

 KALMYK ARMY 

By the beginning of the XVIII century, Kalmyk settlements appeared outside the borders of The Kalmyk Khanate. Don, Chuguev, Stavropol, Orenburg, and Yaitsk ones were included in it. In the second half of the XVIII century, they also appeared on the Terek and Dnieper. The Cossacks, knowing the Kalmyks as “... good horsemen, excellent bravery, always ready to fight and dedicated to service”, tried to attract them to their class. The army of Peter Panin was attended by the Don Kalmyks, who arrived in the army together with the don Cossacks.

Kalmyk settlements on the Don arose in the second half of the 17th century and grew throughout the 18th century due to the influx of Kalmyk groups. The Kalmyk nobility constantly appealed to the Russian government to prohibit Kalmyks from settling on the Don, but this did not stop the influx of Kalmyks to this area.
The don Kalmyks, included in the don Cossack Army, continued to engage in their traditional activity – cattle breeding.

From the second half of the XVIII century, a small part of the Don Kalmyks began to engage in agriculture. The life of the Don Kalmyks up to the XIX century was traditionally built according to national laws.

Since the middle of the XVIII century, the Don administration divided its soldiers into three ulus and several sotnias while the ulus leader was called the ataman, and the sotnia's leader - a sotnik. The Don Kalmyks, depending on the combined-arms mobilization, were required to complete individual sotnias led by their owners (atamans) and replenish the composition of Cossack regiments.

Kalmyks appeared within Russia in the beginning of the XVII century. They migrated from the Dzungarian Khanate and formed the Kalmyk Khanate in the lower reaches of the Volga river, which was strengthened under Ayuk Khan. Archival documents show that the Kalmyks were called to the Don by local Cossacks to fight the Crimean Tatars together.

So, in 1642, the don Cossacks turned to their new neighbors with a proposal to fight together with the Crimeans for the possession of Azov. And in 1648, the Kalmyks first appeared under the Cherkasy town. A defensive and offensive Alliance was concluded between the Kalmyks and the Cossacks, according to which 1000 Kalmyks marched against the Crimeans. From that time on, contracts were concluded between them and oaths of loyal service were given to Russia.

In 1696, Ayuka Khan released up to three thousand caravans (about ten thousand people) to the don near Azov to protect the border line and fight Azov citizens. These Kalmyks did not return to the Kalmyk Khanate, but remained on the Don, near Cherkassk. Some of them accepted the Orthodox faith.

In 1710, Ayuka Khan sent an additional ten thousand Kalmyks to the don, led by the Torghut owner Chimet and the Derbetov owner Chetyr, to guard the southern borders from Kuban raids.

In 1723, Peter I ordered all Kalmyks roaming the Don to remain in the Cossack class and not to accept any more representatives of this nation on these lands. Thus, in 1731, the Kalmyks who moved to the Don became part of the population of the Don army and were subordinated to the administration of the military Cossacks. In 1745, the entire inhabited Western heath was given over to the Kalmyks for camping-ground, who were assigned to the Don Army. These lands were formed by three of the Kalmyk ulus with the farms and people: Upper, Middle and Lower.

 Georgy Vilkov is the author and the compiler

 [1] Ukrainian land-police corps is a formation (union, corps) of the Russian army, a settled army, created by Peter I to defend the southern borders of the Empire from the raids of the Crimean Tatars and Poles, formed from odnodvortsy (a social group of the Russian gentry in the late 17th -mid-19th centuries) - descendants of the city Cossacks of Belgorod, Oryol, Tula, Kursk, Tambov, Voronezh lands; when formed, it was composed of 5 infantry incomplete regiments and settlers of the former "Belgorod line". 

[2] It is probably about the events of July 7, 1770, when up to 1000 Turkish cavalry were lured out of the fortress (according to other sources up to 2000), which was defeated by Russian troops.

[3] in this case, a regiment is an administrative-territorial entity that could assemble the troop.

[4] the regiment was never called Galician. A similar mistake was made in a number of official documents of that time. As with the Ryazhsky regiment: in some documents and on maps it was called the Riga regiment.

Pictures: (in Russian version)

1)    Dragoon officer, the middle of the XVIII century

2)    Coat of arms of the Rostov regiment

3)    Coat of arms of the Borisoglebsk regiment

4)    Colours of the Astrakhan regiment

5)    Badge of the Taurian Grenadierial regiment

6)    Coat of arms of the Chernihiv regiment

7)    Colours of the Belevsk regiment

8)    Colours of the Bryansk regiment

9)    Badge of the Yeletsk regiment

10)  Coat of arms of the Kozlov regiment

11)  Colours with the coat of arms of the Kursk regiment

12)  Coat of arms of the Orlov regiment

13)  Coat of arms of the Ryazhsk regiment

14)  Badge of the Sevsk regiment

15)  Coat of arms of the Tambov regiment

16)  Common non-commissioned officer of the Jaeger battalions, 1768-1786.

17)  Common soldier of the Sumsk Hussar regiment, 1765-1776.

18)  Common soldier of the Izumsk Hussar regiment, 1776-1783.

19)  Common soldier of the Bakhmutsk Hussar regiment, 1764-1774.

20)  Field officer of the Lugansk pikemen regiment, 1776

21)  Cavalryman of the pikemen regiments, 1764

22)  Common soldier of the Donetsk pikemen regiment, 1763

23)  Badge of the Don Cossack army

24)  Coat of arms of the Mirgorod regiment

25)  Coat of arms of the Starodubovsk regiment

26)  Coat of arms of the Lubensk regiment

27)  Kalmyk cavalry. Painted by Oleg Chudutov

 

 

 

 

 

 

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