Evliya Celebi: "Book of Travels" with commentariesExtracts from the work of a Turkish traveler of the 17th century. Translation. Issue 1. Lands of Moldova and Ukraine. Moscow. Publishing House of Oriental Literature. 1961 p. 42-46.
When in 889 h. (1484 A.D.) in the year Bayezid Khan conquered the fortress of Akkerman, then Gedik Ahmed Pasha built a tower in this place, not large, but useful for crossing the Tatars, who were eager to meet the enemy. This fortification was destroyed by the Cossacks during the time of Suleiman Khan. Since the Rus defeated the Tatars when the Tatar army was crossing the Dniester River, the Tatar Khan asked Suleiman Khan to build a fortress in this place, and by the highest decree, the fortress was erected.
Neighboring with Akkerman, it is now a powerful fortress and a solid frontier in Ochakovsky eyyalete. Hass granted by the Sultan  brings his bey an income of 340,000 acce. Timariotov here 312, loans – 40. According to the law, it is necessary to have three thousand troops, counting and jebels. Her bay has an army of five hundred men. The fortress has alaibey, cheribashi, yuzbashi, from - agi, yashly agi, from - kulu. By position qadiya its content is one hundred and fifty akce. And the completion of justice with forty [subordinates to Benders] nakhie kadiyu receives income five purses. If the Tatars undertake campaigns, which they call bash - bash, to the country of the infidels, lying on the other side of the Dniester, then bey it brings income up to forty - fifty Rumelian wallets.
Together with the commandant of the fortress, there are twenty positions in it. ag. The army of the fortress consists of three thousand guards - Azabov, early-kulu And gonyullu. Together with the Janissary Agha [in the fortress] there are seven Janissary Oh yeah With chorbadzhi [at the head], one ode to gunsmiths and gunners. There are also mukhtesib, subashi and head of customs. In total, during the siege, twelve thousand soldiers of Islam gather in this fortress. And since the infidels certainly drink wine once a week, when the hops cloud their eyes, they besiege this fortress.
The shape and dimensions of the Bendery fortress. This fortress is a beautiful, solid, quadrangular structure built of stone. It stands on the banks of the Dniester. One side of it is low, and those that face south and qibla, pass on the high rocks built of limestone. And each stone of its wall is the size of the body of a Menglus elephant, and the pieces of marble are the size of the stomach of a cow or horse.
When the chief architect of Suleiman Khan Sinan - aga ibn Abdulmennan - aga built this fortress, he applied all his art. In accordance with the various laws of geometry, he built such elaborate bastions, ingenious and strong corner towers and walls, that language is powerless in describing their qualities. All its walls are twenty ayaks, they are thick and plastered with mortar with sand, and the shaft [under the walls] is even. The length of the fortress walls is a total of two thousand five hundred and twenty paces. The ditch on the land side is very deep, but there is no ditch along the banks of the Dniester. However, even that side is a solid dividing wall in two rows and [is] a reliable fortification.
There are only two gates in the fortress. One is a large and strong iron gate facing qibla and opening into the posad. Every night, with the help of a gate and a chain, the bridge hanging over the moat is raised and the gates of the fortress are blocked by it. Since there are only two rows of walls in this fortress, there is another iron gate inward from the main gate. They are directed towards qibla, and on them, on a quadrangular slab of white marble, there is tarikh. But, since the slab is fixed very high and in a very busy place, it was impossible to read [the inscription] and I could not write it off. To the right of this tarikh, on white marble, was written in calligraphic handwriting: “Ah! My soul, Ryukiye-khanim ..! ... Majar Mustafa, who loves her." On the side of this inscription, a stone was carved, and the wall was covered with a painted cup made in Iznik. This bowl is a masterful work, with a painting, inside is blue, iridescent tones.
Between these iron gates, another gate [in the form of a lattice] is suspended on a high arch. During the battle, this grate is lowered and blocked with it access to the gate in front. Above this gate is the mosque of Suleiman Khan, but it is not so magnificent and majestic.
In this part of the fortress fenced off [with a dividing wall], there are no other buildings except for hundreds of houses covered with shingles. This upper fortress consists of twelve large, solid, imposing towers covered with a plank. Each of them has six guns. bal-emez. And on other large towers, similar to fortresses and located at the four corners of this fortress, there are one hundred small cannons and large cannons. shahane. And in each such tower sticks out one hundred - one hundred and fifty cores fired by enemy cannons. Because yassky kafir with a hundred thousandth army of the Rus he besieged this place six times, but he could not win anything and left, having suffered a complete failure.
And inside this fortress there are small iron gates facing east and leading to the lower part of the fortification. The fortress approaches the very bank of the Dniester. All the houses inside it are turned to the east and their windows look one on top of the other to the Dniester. In total, there are three hundred shingled houses in it. And there are no vineyards and orchards here at all. All janissaries, gunners and gunsmiths are stationed in this fortress.
Another part of the fortress separated by a [wall] has a solid, imposing ribat. On six strong towers of this lower fortress there are cannons facing the Dniester. bal-emez, which absolutely do not give the seagulls of the Rus a passage either there or back. Melek Pasha ordered the roofs of these towers to be covered with shingles at his own expense. Honor and praise to this vizier, zealous owner.
On the bank of the Dniester there are water gates facing the east, through which the entire population of the fortress takes water. Since the bank of the Dniester is sandy, there is no moat on this side. In some places, this side of the fortress runs along a steep slope. In this large lower fortress, which has its own gates, there is another mosque of Suleiman Khan, and on both sides of it mihrab there are guns bal-emez. In front of the house of the Janissary Agha are the graves of two martyrs and have seen many times that on each Night of Destiny a light descends upon them. In general, the well-maintained Bendery fortress is a reliable castle in the Ottoman possessions.
Outside the gates of this fortress, not far from it, at the edge of the moat, on a hillock blown [by the winds], there is a place for gatherings of educated people, a place for walking and a platform for performing joyful prayer. All gazii they perform rituals and prayers there and wait there for those arriving [in the fortress].
The ditch is completely fenced along its edges with thick posts with crossbars, and neither a horse, nor a mule, nor any other animal can pass through this fence. For the same reason, no one can throw garbage into the ditch. And that ditch is very deep and clean.
On all four sides of this solid fortress lies the battlefield. There are no traces of any buildings here. And on that battlefield, the cannons of the fortress bristled like hedgehog needles.
To the east of this fortress there is no settlement at all, but on the western and southern sides there is a large suburb, and on all sides it is surrounded by a sheer moat. Everywhere in it there are wells with a thick frame and guardrooms.
Posad of the Bendery fortress. There are four mosques in this settlement. mihrabs, seven Muslim quarters and seven Wallachian and Moldavian quarters. In total there are one thousand seven hundred houses, having an upper floor, covered with boards and reeds. The yards of many houses are fenced. Minarets mosques are upholstered with planks. The mosque, located in the trading rows, has a crowded parish. There are primary schools in two places. There are two hundred large and small shops. There is no pavement on the streets at all, and there are few vineyards. The reason for this is that every day the infidels come and fight and cause destruction. However, the plain extending to the west and south from the settlement is very fertile, covered with grass and [various other] vegetation. And in the villages there is a lot of honey and butter. Water and air are very pleasant. The people here are extremely strong, of a heroic physique. Everyone wears Tatar hats and sheepskin coats. Every morning they go to the other side of the Dniester to fight the Cossacks.
There is only one cramped bathhouse in the city. On one of the days [of our stay] several gaziev. They seized and brought seven Cossack languages. The prudent pasha forced them to speak. [And they said:] “By God, they say that the son of the Transylvanian king Rakoczy with a hundred thousandth army has already come to the Sigel steppes of the Transylvanian region, but has not yet entered the Polish lands. And the Polish king with 200,000 troops is waiting for your arrival and help. The beys of Wallachia and Moldavia, subject to you, supposedly sent twenty thousand troops each to help Rakoczy , and they are about to hit you. When they said so, the pasha ordered urgently, in five days, to deliver these tongues to Köprül.
Under the fortress of Bendery, Melek Pasha received the news that as soon as the tongues reported these alarming circumstances, kethuda Wallachia and Moldavia Uzun Ali-aga, who was at the Threshold of Happiness, turned to Köprül, wanting to show his courage: “My lord, this news is an absurd slander by Melek Ahmed Pasha. Kill me if Wallachia and Moldavia support King Rakoczy." From this, Melek Ahmed Pasha understood that kethuda already ordered the killing of tongues. Immediately prudent and worried about the consequences, the pasha sent scouts to Wallachia and Moldavia, and when two days later they informed him that the news they had received was correct, the pasha with the warriors of Islam was ready [to act].
Arrived the next day from the capital kapujibashi with the Padishah Rescript. He offered this blessed rescript with the words: “O my lala Melek, may Allah make your work easy. And may you be perspicacious, helping our friend, the Polish king, together with the Crimean Khan.
On the same day batyr named Alysh-aga brought news from the Tatar Khan. He wrote: “My brother, be ready! If Allah wills, we will unite with you on the day Hadji Bairam under the Khotyn fortress. Then, from the Rydvanets fortress, your lordship will move to the Dniester River. In the Polish lands, your highness will be joined by the Polish king, the army of Cracow and Kardash Cossacks. And as we move on the damned Rakoczi, you are from the rear, and we are in front, then he will be unhappy! God be merciful, act slowly, as we sent our brother Nureddin Sultan with forty thousand troops to look for Rakoczy. When, God willing, they enter the country of the Poles and news about the camp [Rakoczy] is received, then we will inform your respected lordship about all that.
As soon as this notification came from the khan about the postponement [of the action against Rakoczi] until the specified day, the prudent pasha, after conferring with many people, considered it reasonable to move to the region of the infidels, called Orhei.
- Evliya Chelebi calls Ukrainians and Cossacks “Rus”, i.е. in his narrative, Ukrainians and Don Cossacks, who were predominantly Russian, can act under the name of "Rus".
- The Ochakiv Eyalet is a province of the Ottoman Empire, a significant part of which was located on the territory of modern Ukraine and Moldova occupied by the Turkish conquerors. The Ochakov Eyalet had no definite boundaries. In fact, Turkish power extended to small territories on which Turkish fortified cities were located. The largest strongholds of the Turks were the cities of Ochakov, Bendery, Akkerman, Izmail, Kiliya.
- Khass - land grants that were provided in conditional possession to large state dignitaries (viziers, beylerbeys, sanjak-beys, etc.) and brought at least one hundred thousand akche income per year. Representatives of the military-feudal class, who owned chaos, according to the law, had to come to war along with the army of the dzhebel. In Anatolia, one jebel was exhibited for every three thousand akche of annual income, in Rumelia - for every five thousand. Unlike Timars and Zeamets, Khasses were not necessarily associated with military service: they were provided to members of the Sultan's family, they personally constituted the Sultan's and crown destinies (Khass-i Selyatin, Hass-i Humayun). A special category of khass were feedings given to female persons close to the court, the so-called shoes (for shoes), as well as arpalyks (for barley), which were given to large military leaders and courtiers who were on the salary as a subsidy. The amount of income received from xaccos was often much higher than the minimum rate. Thus, the hass of Pasha Eyalets brought income up to 1.5 million akce per year, sanjak-beys - up to 500 thousand, the Janissary agha received 500 thousand from his arpalyk, the main defterdar - 450 thousand, the chief sultan's equestrian - 400 thousand, chashnigirbashi - 350 thousand, the junior sultan's equerry - 330 thousand akce, etc. Rumelia - the European possessions of the Ottoman Empire.
- Akce is a Turkish silver coin. It began to be minted in Bursa in 1328 by Orhan Bey (1326 - 1359). On the front side were placed the name and title of the Sultan and the auspicious formula: "May his victory be glorified", and on the back - the place of minting, the year of the accession of the Sultan to the throne and the formula: "May his kingdom be preserved." In the history of Turkish monetary circulation, the 17th century is a period of a catastrophic fall in the weight of the akce and a deterioration in the quality of the coin. Under Orhan, akche weighed 6 carats (1.54 g) with the highest standard of silver. By the time that Evliya Chelebi narrates here (by 1656), the weight of the akche had dropped to one carat, and the fineness to 50%. By the end of the XVII century. the weight of akche decreased ten times against the original, and the metal from which it was minted almost did not differ from copper: for one altun they gave then 300-400 akche. Damage to the coin repeatedly led to indignation and unrest of merchants. artisans and the poor.
- Timariot is the conditional owner of the timar (timar sakhib), a horseman (timarly sipahi) who owned the flax, who is obliged to perform military service before the sultan and come to war with a certain number of jebeli warriors. In the 17th century the number of Timariots reached 50 thousand people
- Zaim is the owner of a fief called zeamet. Loans, together with timariots, constituted the category of timar sipachis and, according to the law, they were required to personally appear at war, having with them mounted warriors - jebels.
- Jebels - men at arms. The category of cavalry, which was kept and brought to war by the owners of the fiefs. The horse, weapons and food of each jebel were provided by the owner of the fief. These jebels were the slaves of their fief, whom he either bought for money or took prisoner in the war.
- Bey is a feudal title in Turkey and a number of other countries of the Near and Middle East, as well as among the Crimean Tatars and other Turkic peoples. The title of bey was given to commanders and rulers of various ranks.
- Alaybey is the commander of the alai (regiment), which was the main combat unit of the troops of the flax cavalry - the so-called timar sipakhis. Each alay was supposed to have a thousand sipakhis. Three or four subashis were subordinate to Alaibey, who in peacetime were engaged in maintaining order in the kaza (a military-administrative unit in a sanjak, translated as “district” or “subdistrict”).
- Cheribashi is one of the commanders in the troops of the fief sipahs, usually the owner of a zeamet, who is obliged to keep his jebels in a state of full readiness not only in time of war, but also in peacetime, in order to maintain order and tranquility in a certain area or city. The title of cheribashi was also assigned to the commanders of Turkish settlers from Anatolia to Rumelia, who were called evlyad-i fatihan (“sons of the victors”), as well as to the commanders of the warriors.
- Yuzbashi - a military rank in the detachments of the timar sipakhs, corresponding to the centurion (squadron commander or hundreds).
- Ot-aga - 1.) In the troops of the Crimean Tatars, this was the name of the heads of each of the twelve columns of cavalry going on a raid under the leadership of the khan (Kalga led eight columns, Nureddin - six). Each column had up to six to eight thousand horsemen. Apparently, this was also the name given to the heads of small cavalry detachments in the provincial troops.
- Yashly aga - the exact meaning of the term could not be revealed. Apparently, this is a military commander in the provincial troops, who was usually part of the garrison of the fortress - something like a senior non-commissioned officer (assistant platoon commanders) on extra-long service.
- Ot-kulu - cavalry units in the troops of the provinces.
- Qadi (qadi) - a judge who conducts legal proceedings on the basis of Sharia (Islamic law) or adat (customary law). Qadi also oversaw the waqfs (property donated by the state or individual for religious or charitable purposes) and checked the reports of the mutevelli (the person appointed to govern and supervise the waqfs). Depending on the rank, the qadis had different salaries. The chief qadi of Istanbul received 500 akce per day, the qadi of the highest rank - 300 akce, the middle rank - 150 akce, the lowest - 60 - 70 akce. In accordance with this, the rank of a kadilyk was also determined (“three hundred kadilyk”, etc.). Along with the state maintenance, the qadis collected fees for their own benefit for the commission of various legal acts and the signing of papers. Qadis of the highest rank could perform the duties of defterdars (in charge of financial affairs) in the provinces.
- Nakhie qadiy - a judge from a small town or large village where there is a mosque.
- Besh-bash (lit. "five heads") is the name of the military campaigns organized by the Crimean Tatars.
- The Rumelian purse contained 500 kurushes or piastres.
- Yep, military title.
- Azabs (lit. "bachelors") - a type of regular infantry army that arose even before the organization of the Janissary corps. Under Mehmed Fatih, the number of Azabs reached 30 thousand, but then it was greatly reduced in favor of the Janissaries, as a more combat-ready part of the army. Already in the XIV - XV centuries. Azabs were also widely used as military sailors to organize landings. Over time, they began to be used mainly for the protection of coastal fortresses and as shooters for fighting at sea. Azabs were on the salary of the treasury. In the middle of the XVII century. ordinary azabs received from 4 to 7 akche per day.
- Yerli-Kulu was the name given to the troops that were at the disposal of various provincial governors and were supported by the Eyalets. sanjaks. The general name of the local garrison troops in the fortresses. The fief troops were not among the Yerli-Kulu.
- Gönyullu (lit. “volunteer”) is a type of light cavalry troops created in fortresses from among local residents to repel sudden enemy attacks. They received a salary from the funds of the Eyalet. Their commander was Gonullu-aga.
- Ode - 1.) Janissary barracks; each belyuk and orta had their own barracks. The first Janissary odes were in Edirne, and after the conquest of Istanbul (1453), it became the main quartering of the Janissaries. In the 17th century in Turkey there were 199 odes. 2.) Later, the name ode was also transferred to the military units that were stationed in them. The word oda and orta began to be used as equivalent.
- Chorbadzhi - an officer rank in the Janissary army, commander of an orta (company) or belyuk (the latter was often called belyukbashi).
- 1) Gunsmiths - dzhebeji, were a paramilitary economic organization with broad responsibilities. Part of the jebeji was engaged in the manufacture of various personal weapons, military equipment and ammunition: arrows, bows, sabers, shields, spears, armor, guns, pistols, gunpowder, bullets. Other dzhebeji were obliged to guard these weapons, distribute them among military units, deliver them to the battlefield, collect abandoned weapons, and repair them. Workshops and warehouses of dzhebeji were located in Istanbul, but, in addition, they were available in many fortresses, especially border ones. If necessary, the dzhebeji could also force the workshops that were not part of their organization to manufacture weapons.
- Pushkari (trample) - a kind of state-supported regular army. They were divided into two independent categories:
- 1) those who cast cannons (the main foundry - tophane - was in Istanbul);
- 2) the actual artillerymen who participated in the battles. The corps of gunners began to be created together with the Janissaries, and the foundry business was organized not by the Turks, but by captured Christians or Europeans who went over to the service of the Turkish Sultan and often adopted the Muslim faith.
- Mukhtesib is a person who is obliged to look after the prices at which artisans and merchants sold their goods, for the correctness of weights and measures. He had the right to punish those who cheated in trade matters by using the wrong measures of weight or length.
- Subashi - 1.) Subashi state (miri subashi) - an official who carried out the duties of the chief of police in the cities. During the day, he examined the malls, bazaars, the safety of houses and bridges, and at night, together with the asesbashi, he patrolled the city, conducted searches, detained suspicious people, etc. He obeyed the Qadi. 2.) Subashi timar (timar subashisi) - a fief from among the military-feudal nobility of the province. This subashi was usually located in the kasaba and in the fortresses. In peacetime, he was their ruler, in wartime he went on a campaign as a commander of a detachment of sipahs numbering 250-300 horsemen. Obeyed Alaibey.
- Qibla is the side where Muslims face during prayer, the direction to Mecca.
- Ayak - a measure of length equal to half a building arshin (0.3556 m)
- This term has three meanings: 1) date, 2) chronogram, 3) history. Tarikh is such a phrase, prose or poetic, in which the date of an event is revealed using the numerical value of Arabic letters (ab-djed).
- Ceramic production in Iznik (the former Byzantine city of Nicaea) took shape at least in the last quarter of the 15th century. The formation of a large ceramic center in Iznik corresponded, first of all, to the needs of monumental architecture - the interior design of mosques and palaces of the rapidly growing cities of the Ottoman state, and, first of all, Istanbul.
- Ball-emez (distorted Italian ballo mezzo) - a long-range cannon, used both on land and at sea, firing cannonballs weighing up to 50 kg.
- Shahane or shahs (lit. "breaking pissal") - a large-caliber field gun ("shahi zarbzen"), with an average weight of 8 cantars (about 440 kg); caliber approximately 8 pounds (approximately 102 - 106 mm).
- This refers to the Moldavian ruler; during the described period, the ruler of Moldova was most likely Vasily Lupu (1634 - 1654), who was related to the Ukrainian hetman Bogdan Khmelnitsky.
- Ribat is a specially fortified part of the fortress.
- Shehid - a Muslim who died on the battlefield in the fight against external enemies or rebels; it was a "true (haqiqi) martyr". Those Muslims who died during a natural disaster, disappeared without a trace, drowned or gave their lives in the field of science, etc., were called “legal (or nominal) martyrs” (hyukmi shehid).
- The night of al-Qadr, the Night of Decision, the Night of Power, in Islam is the 27th night of Ramadan (the ninth month of the Arabic lunar year), the revered night of the fasting month of Ramadan, associated with the revelation of the Koran to the Prophet Muhammad in the form of a revelation in the cave of Hira of Mount Jabal al-Nur . On the Night of Predestination, it is customary to ask God for forgiveness for the sins committed and read the Koran.
- Ghazi (ghazi) - a Muslim participating in the ghazawat. An honorary title given to a person who became famous in the "holy war" against the infidels (kafirs).
- György (George, Yuri) II Rakoczi (Hungarian II. Rákóczi György; January 30, 1621, Sarospatak - June 7, 1660, Nagyvarad) - Prince of Transylvania from the Hungarian Calvinist family Rakoczi (1648 - 1657, 1659 - 1660). The campaign of the Turkish and Tatar troops in Poland against the troops of the Transylvanian prince Gyorgy II Rakoczi was preceded by the following events. By 1655, Poland, after major defeats suffered in the war with Russia, requested peace on any terms. The Russian Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich was even offered the Polish throne. The Austrian emperor Ferdinand III imposed his mediation in the negotiations between the two powers. Neighboring states took advantage of Poland's difficult situation. In 1656 the Swedish king Charles X started a war against Poland. While endless negotiations between the Polish and Russian governments dragged on, the Swedish troops advanced far into the interior of the Polish lands. After the Russian troops opposed the Swedes, the Swedish king entered into an alliance with the Transylvanian prince. The anti-Polish alliance was joined by the Ukrainian hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Duke of Prussia, Elector of Brandenburg Friedrich Wilhelm. In the winter of 1657, Rakoczi, with the Hungarian army and auxiliary detachments sent from the Wallachian and Moldavian rulers, moved to Poland. Bohdan Khmelnitsky, due to illness, was unable to go on a campaign in person. Ukrainian detachments were sent to Galicia to help Rakoczi under the command of the Kyiv colonel Zhdanovich and Yuri Khmelnitsky, who was elected in April 1657 as the hetman. Rakoczy's troops reached Warsaw in a short time and took it. The inconsistency of actions and major disagreements in the camp of the participants in the anti-Polish coalition, the irreconcilable position of Russia, which was interested in preserving Polish statehood, the military assistance of Turkey and the Crimean Khan, who were afraid of the strengthening of the Transylvanian prince, helped the Polish government get rid of the formidable danger. In the summer of 1657, Rakoczy, having lost his allies and found himself in virtual isolation, met with the Tatar-Turkish army. After a three-day battle, both sides were forced to make peace. Although under the treaty the Hungarian army was guaranteed complete immunity, the Tatars violated the terms of the truce. Part of the Hungarian army was killed, part was taken prisoner. Rakoczi with a few people managed to escape to Transylvania.
- Kekhuda - authorized Wallachian and Moldavian rulers who lived in Istanbul. They conducted the political and ecclesiastical affairs of their rulers with the sultan's government and the patriarchate. There were always two of them - one from the Wallachian ruler and one from the Moldavian.
- Kapujibashi - one of the dignitaries of the Sultan's court, the head of the palace gatekeepers. Under Mehmed II Fatih, there was one kapujibashi, in the 17th century. their number ranged from 12 to 21. They had from 500 to 2000 kapujas under their command. Kapujibashi were obliged to protect the doors of the Sultan's palace, introduced foreign ambassadors to the divan and padishah, if necessary, they were sent with important secret messages to the rulers of the eyyalets. Kapujibashi were also used to deal with rulers of eyyalets or other important state officials who were objectionable to the Sultan. They also accompanied to the place the persons appointed to the positions of governor of Wallachia, Moldavia or the bey of Transylvania. The rulers of Wallachia and Moldavia were obliged to send gifts to four kapujibashi every year.
- Batyr is an honorary title among the Mongolian and Turkic peoples.
- The day of festivities organized on the occasion of the return of Muslim pilgrims who made the hajj to Mecca to worship the Kaaba temple and to Medina to the tomb of Muhammad. A Muslim who performed the Hajj received the honorary title of Haji.
- Kardash-Cossacks, i.e., fraternal Cossacks, the Turks called part of the Ukrainian Cossacks, whose foremen in 1624 "fraternized" and concluded an alliance agreement with the Crimean Khan Mohammed Giray III (1623 - 1627) and his brother Kalga Sultan Shahin- Giray against the Turks. Deprived of the throne, Mohammed Giray fled to his "Cossack brothers" on the Dnieper. Leading with his brother both the Dnieper and the Don Cossacks, Mohammed Giray made many campaigns against the Turkish fortresses in the Crimea and the Crimean Tatars hostile to him. He was killed during another raid in 1629. Maintaining relations of "friendship and brotherhood" with a part of the Ukrainian Cossacks became for the subsequent Crimean khans of the 17th century. rule. The Crimean khans resorted to the help of the Cossacks to fight for the khan's throne against the next Turkish henchmen, to organize major military campaigns in Poland, Moldova, etc. The alliances between the Crimean Tatars and the Cossacks were not at all strong and, if they went against with the interests of one of the parties, were quickly liquidated.
- Nureddin or Nureddi Sultan is the second heir in the Crimean Khanate, the third person in the Khanate after the Khan and Kalga Sultan. Kalga, or kalga-sultan - the first heir in the Crimean Khanate, the second person in the state after the khan.