Home / DESCRIPTION OF THE BENDERY FORTRESS, SUMMER 1657 EVLIYA CHELEBI "BOOK OF TRAVEL" WITH COMMENTS

... DESCRIPTION OF THE BENDERY FORTRESS, SUMMER 1657 EVLIYA CHELEBI "BOOK OF TRAVEL" WITH COMMENTS ...

When Baezid Khan conquered the fortress of AK-Kerman in 889 (1484 A.D.), Gedik Ahmed Pasha built a small tower in this place, but it was useful for crossing the Tatars who were eager to meet the enemy. This fortification was destroyed by the Cossacks in the time of Suleiman Khan. Since the Rus' people defeated the Tatars when the Tatar army crossed the Dniester river, the Tatar Khan asked Suleiman Khan to build a fortress in this place, and by the highest decree the fortress was erected.

Adjacent to Akkerman, it is now a powerful fortress and a strong border in the Ochakov Eyalet. The Sultan's grant Hass brings his bey an income of 340,000 akche. There are 312 timariots and 40 zaims. By law, it is necessary to have three thousand troops, including jebeli . Its Bey has a force of five hundred men. The fortress contains Alaibey, Сheribashi, yuzbashi, Ot-Aga, Yashli Aga and Ot-Kulu. .According to the position of the Qadi, he's supposed to keep a hundred and fifty akche. After the completion of justice Nahie Qadi receives five purses of income from the subordinate to the Bender. If the Tartars undertake the campaigns they call Besh-bash to the land of the infidels, which lies on the other side of the Dniester, the Bey receives an income of up to forty or fifty Rumelia purses. 

Together with the commandant of the fortress, there are twenty Aga positions in it. The army of the fortress consists of three thousand guards - azaps, erli-kulu and gonullu. Together with the janissary Aga [in the fortress] there are seven janissary odas, with chorbaji [at the head], one oda of armorers and cannoneers. There are also muhtasib, subashi, and the chief of customs. In total, twelve thousand soldiers of Islam gather in this fortress during the siege. Since the infidels always drink wine once a week, when the hops clouds their eyes, they besiege this fortress. 

Shape and size of the Bendery fortress. This fortress is a beautiful strong, stone-built structure of a quadrangular shape. It stands on the bank of the Dniester river. One side is low, and those facing South and the Qibla pass over high limestone cliffs. Each stone of its wall is the size of the body of a menglusan elephant, and the pieces of marble are the size of the stomach of a cow or horse. 

When Suleiman Khan's main architect Sinan Ibn Abdulmenan-Aga built the fortress, he employed all his art. In accordance with the various laws of geometry, he built such elaborate bastions, ingenious and strong corner towers and walls that language is powerless to describe their qualities. All its walls are twenty ayaks wide, they are thick and smeared with a solution of sand, and the rampart [under the walls] is flat. The total length of the fortress walls is two thousand five hundred and twenty steps. The moat on the land side is very deep, and it is absent along the bank of the Dniester river. However, even that side is a solid dividing wall in two rows and [is] a reliable fortification. 

There are only two gates in the fortress. The first one is large and strong iron gates, facing Qibla and opening into the settlement. Every night, with the help of a gate and chain, the bridge hanging over the moat is raised and blocked by the gates of the fortress. Since there are only two rows of walls in this fortress, there is another iron gate inside the main gate. It faces the Qibla, there is a Tarikh on them, on a square slab of white marble. But, as the slab is set very high and in a very busy place, it was impossible to read the [inscription], and I could not copy it. There was an inscription on the white marble on the right hand of this Tarikh in a calligraphic handwriting: "Oh! My soul, Rukiya Khanum..! ...Madjar Mustafa, who loves her so much!" Next to this inscription, the stone was cut out, and the wall was covered with a painted cup of Iznik production. This cup is a masterful work, with a painting, it is blue and of opalescent inside. 

Another gate [in the form of railings] is suspended on a high arch between these iron gates. During a battle the railing is lowered and blocked access to the front gate. There is the Suleiman Khan mosque above this gate, but it is not so magnificent and majestic. 

There are no other buildings in this part of the fortress that is fenced off by a [dividing wall], except for a hundred shingled houses. This upper fortress consists of twelve large, strong, impressive towers covered with batten. Each of them has six Bal-emez cannons. There are one hundred small cannons and large shahane cannons on other large towers, similar to fortresses and placed at the four corners of this fortress. And each of these towers has a hundred or a hundred and fifty cannonballs fired by enemy cannons. Kafirs (disbelievers) with a hundred thousand Rus army besieged this place six times, but could not win anything and left, having failed completely. 

There are small iron gates facing East and leading to the lower part of the fortification inside this fortress. The fortress approaches the very bank of the Dniester river. All the houses inside it face East and look at the Dniester river, they are located on top of one another. There are three hundred shingled houses in total. And there are no vineyards or orchards here at all. All Janissaries, gunners, and armourers are stationed in this fortress. 

Another section of the fortress separated by a wall has a strong, impressive Ribat. There are Bal-emez cannons facing the Dniester on the six strong towers of this lower fortress, which completely prevent the Rus's chaikas from passing either there or back. Melek Pasha ordered the roofs of these towers to be covered with shingles at his own expense. It is honor and praise to this vezir, a diligent host. 

There are water gates facing East on the Bank of the Dniester river, which the entire population of the fortress takes water through. Since the bank of the Dniester is sandy, there is no moat on this side. In some places, this side of the fortress runs along a steep slope. There is another mosque of Suleiman Khan in this large lower fortress, which has its own gates, and there are the guns of Bal-emez on both sides of her mihrab. There are the graves of two Shahids in front of the house of the janissary Aga, and people saw many times that a light descends on them on every Qadr Night. In General, the well-maintained fortress of Bendery is a reliable castle in the Ottoman possessions. 

There is a place for meetings of educated people, a place for walking and a platform for performing a joyous prayer outside the gates of this fortress, not far from it, at the edge of the moat, on a hillock covered with wind. All the Ghazis perform ceremonies and prayers there and wait for those who arrive [at the fortress]. 

The moat is completely enclosed at the edges by thick posts with crossbars, and neither horse, mule, nor any other animal can pass through this fence. For the same reason, no one can throw garbage into the moat. And the moat is very deep and clean.

There is a battlefield on all four sides of this strong fortress. There are no traces of any buildings here. The guns of the fortress are directed at that battlefield.

there is no settlement at all to the east of this fortress, but there is a large suburb on the west and south sides, it is surrounded by a steep moat on all sides. There are wells with a thick log house and guard rooms everywhere in it.

The settlement of Bendery fortress. There are four mosques with mihrabs, seven muslim quarters and seven quarters of Wallachian and Moldavian in this town. In total, there are seventeen hundred houses with an upper floor, covered with battens and reeds. The courtyards of many houses are surrounded by a fence. The minarets of mosques are covered with planks. The mosque, located in the shopping malls, has a crowded parish. There are two primary schools in some areas. There are two hundred large and small shops. There is no pavement on the streets at all, and there are few vineyards. The reason for this is that every day the infidels come, start fighting and cause destruction. However, the plain extending west and south from the settlement is very fertile, covered with grass and [various other] vegetation. There is a lot of honey and oil in the villages. The water and air are very pleasant. The people here are extremely strong, of athletic build. All the people wear Tatar hats and sheepskin coats. Every morning they go to the other side of the Dniester to fight the Cossacks.

There is only one cramped bathhouse in the town. On one of the days [of our stay], several Ghazis were lying in ambush here. They seized and brought seven Cossacks. The prudent pasha made them talk. [And they told: "By God, they say that the son of the Transylvanian King Rakoczi with a hundred thousand troops has already come to the Siegel steppes of the Transylvanian region, but has not yet entered the Polish lands. And the Polish king with two hundred thousand troops is waiting for your arrival and help. The Beys of Wallachia and Moldavia, which are subject to you, are said to have sent twenty thousand troops to the aid of Rakoczi, and they are about to attack you." When they said it, Pasha commanded to bring these people to the Koprulu urgently, in five days. 

Under the fortress of Bendery, Melek Pasha received the news that as soon as the people reported these alarming circumstances, Kethuda of Wallachia and Moldavia Uzun Ali-Aga, who was on the Abode of Felicity, turned to Koprulu, wanting to show his courage: "My Lord, this news is an absurd slander by Melek Ahmed Pasha. Kill me if Wallachia and Moldavia would support the king Rakoczi". Melek Ahmed Pasha realized that Kethuda had alreage given an order to kill those poor people. The pasha who was prudent and anxious about the consequences, sent spies to Wallachia and Moldavia, and when two days later they informed him that the news received earlier was correct, the Pasha and the soldiers of Islam were ready [to act].

Kapudjibashi arrived from the capital and brought padishah rescript on the following day. He presented this blessed rescript with the words: "Oh, my Lala Melek, may Allah make your concern easy. And may you be perspicacious in helping our friend, the Polish king, together with the Crimean Khan." 

On the same day, a batyr named Alysh-Aga brought news from the Tatar khan. He wrote: "My brother, be ready! If it pleases Allah, we will join you on the day of Hacı Bayram under the fortress of Khotyn. Then your lordship will move to the Dniester river from the Radvanec fortress. In the Polish lands, Your Highness will be joined by the Polish King, the Krakow army and the Kardash Cossacks. And if we move on the damned Rakoczi, you - from backside, and we from the front, then be sure he'll get into trouble! God is merciful, take your time, for we have sent our brother Nureddin Sultan with forty thousand men to search for Rakoczi. When, God willing, they enter the country of the Poles and news of the camp [Rakoczi] is received, we will inform your esteemed Lordship about all this." 

As soon as this notice came from the Khan of postponing [the march against Rakoczi] until the specified day, the prudent Pasha, after consulting with many people, thought it wise to move to the region of the infidels, called Orhei.

Comments.

1. Evliya Chelebi calls" Rus' people " the Ukrainians and Cossacks, i.e. in his narrative, the name "Rus" can be used by Ukrainians and Don Cossacks, who were mainly Russian.

2. Ochakov Eyalet is a province of the Ottoman Empire, a significant part of which was located on the territory of modern Ukraine and Moldova captured by the Turkish conquerors.Ochakov eyalet had no definite borders. In fact, the Turkish power was spread on a small territory, where the Turkish fortress cities were situated. The largest strongholds of the Turks were the cities of Ochakov, Bendery, Akkerman, Izmail, and Kilia.

3. Hass is land grants provided in conditional possession to major state noblemen (viziers, beylerbeys, sanjakbeys, etc.) and bringing at least one hundred thousand akche of income per year. According to local laws, representatives of the military-feudal class, who owned the hass had to come to war with the army of jebeli. In Anatolia, one jebeli was exhibited for every three thousand ache of annual income, in Rumelia – for every five thousand. Unlike timars and ziamets, the hass were not necessarily associated with military service: they were granted to members of the Sultan's family, and were personally the Sultan's and crown estates (hass - and selyatin, hass-and Humayun). A feeding issued to a female from close to the court - the so-called bashmaklyky ("for shoes"), and arpalycy ("for barley") was a special category of hass; they were given to high-ranking military leaders and courtiers on their salaries as grants. The amount of income received from Hass often far exceeded the minimum rate. Thus, the hass of the Pasha eyalets brought in income of up to 1.5 million akche per year, Sanjakbey - up to 500 thousand, janissary Aga received from his arpalycy 500 thousand, Chief Defterdar - 450 thousand, chief Sultan's equerry - 400 thousand, chashnigirbashi - 350 thousand, Junior Sultan's equerry - 330 thousand akche, etc. Rumelia is the European possessions of the Ottoman Empire.

4. Akche is a Turkish silver coin. It was minted in Bursa in 1328 by Orhan Bey (1326-1359). The front side contained the name and title of the Sultan and good minded sentence : "May his victory be glorified", and on the back – the place of coinage, the year of the Sultan's enthronement, and the sentence: "May his Kingdom be preserved." In the history of monetary circulation in Turkey, the 17th century is a period of catastrophic decline in the weight of akche and deterioration of the quality of the coin. Under Orhan, akche weighed 6 carats (1.54 g) with the highest silver pureness. By the time Evliya Chelebi narrates here (by 1656), the weight of the akche had decreased to one carat, and the pureness to 50%. By the end of the XVII century, the weight of akche had decreased ten times compared to the original one, and the metal from which it was minted was almost no different from copper: at that time, 300 – 400 akche were given for one Altun. Damage to the coin has repeatedly led to the indignation and unrest of merchants, craftsmen and poor people.

5. Timariot is the conditional owner of Timar (Timar sahabi), a horseman who owned the feeds (Timarly sahahi), who was obliged to perform military service before the Sultan and appear at war with a certain number of jebeli soldiers. In the XVII century the number of timariots reached 50 thousand people.

6. Zaim is the owner of a feed called ziamet. Zaims together with timariots formed the category of timar sipahi and by law they were required to appear at war personally, having with them mounted soldiers - jebeli.

7. Jebeli is an armour-clad warrior. Category of mounted troops that were kept and brought to war by the owners of the feeds. The horse, weapons, and food of each jebeli were provided by the owner of the feeds. These jebels were the slaves of their captive, whom he either bought with money or captured in war.

8. Bey is a feudal title in Turkey and several other countries of the Far and Middle East, as well as among the Crimean Tatars and other Turkish peoples. The title of Bey was given to military leaders and rulers of various ranks.

9. Alaibey is a commander of the alai (regiment), which was the main combat unit of the feed cavalry troops — the so-called timar sipahi. There were supposed to be a thousand sipahis in each Alai. Alaibey was subordinate to three or four Subashi, who in peacetime were engaged in maintaining order in Kaza (a military administrative unit in the Sanjak, translated as" district "or"sub-district").

10. Cheribashi is one of the commanders in the army of feed sipachi, usually the owner of Ziamet, obliged to keep their jebeli in a state of readiness, not only during war but also in peacetime to maintain order and peace in a certain area or in the city. The title of Cheribashi also assigned to the commanders of the Turkish settlers from Anatolia in Rumelia, which was called evlyad and fatihan ("sons of winners"), as well as Voynuks' chiefs.

11. Yuzbashi is a military rank in the troops Timar sipahi corresponding to a Sotnic (the commander of the squadron or sotnia).

12. Ot-Aga-1.) in the troops of the Crimean Tatars, this was the name of the chiefs of each of the twelve columns of cavalry going on a raid under the leadership of the Khan (kalga led eight columns, Nureddin – six). In each column there were up to six or eight thousand horsemen. 2.) apparently, this was also the name of the chiefs of small cavalry detachments in the provincial troops.

13. Yashli Aga – the exact meaning of the term could not be investigated. Apparently, this is a military chief in the provincial troops, who was usually part of the fortress garrison – something like a senior non-commissioned officer (assistant troop commanders) on additional service.

14. Ot-Kulu is mounted detachments in the troops of the provinces.

15. Qadi is a judge who conducts legal proceedings based on Sharia (Muslim law) or Adat (customary law). The Qadi also monitored waqfs (property transferred by the state or an individual for religious or charitable purposes) and checked the reports of mutevelli (the person appointed to manage and supervise waqfs). Depending on their rank, the Qadi had different salaries. The chief Istanbul Qadi received 500 akche per day, the highest – ranking Cadi – 300 akche, the middle-150 akche, the lowest-60-70 akche. In accordance with this, the rank of the kadiluk was also determined ("three-hundred kadiluk", etc.). Along with the state treasury, the Qadias collected fees for the execution of various legal acts and the signing of papers in their favor. Qadias of the highest rank could perform the duties of Defterdars (in charge of financial Affairs) in the provinces.

16. Nahie Qadi – a judge from a small town or a big village, where there is a mosque.

17. Besh-bash (literally "five heads") is the name of military campaigns organized by the Crimean Tatars.

18. Rumelia purse consisted of 500 Kurush or piastres.

19. Aga - a title of military commander.

20. Azap (literally "single") is a type of regular infantry force that emerged before the janissary corps was organized. In the time of Mehmed Fatih, the number of azaps reached 30 thousand, but then it was greatly reduced in favor of the Janissaries, as a more efficient part of the army. In the XIV - XV centuries, Azaps were widely used as sailors for the organization of the landing forces. Over time, they were used primarily for the protection of coastal fortresses and as riflemen for fighting at sea. The azaps were paid by the Treasury. In the middle of the XVII century, ordinary azaps received from 4 to 7 akche a day.

21. Erli-Kulu is the name of the troops that were at the disposal of various provincial governors and were maintained by the eyalets of the sanjaks. It is a common name for local garrison troops in fortresses. Feudal troops were not included in the number of Yerli-Kulu.

22. Gonullu (lit. "volunteer") is a type of light horse troops created in fortresses from among local residents to repel sudden enemy attacks. They received a salary from the eyalet funds. Their commander was Gonullu Aga.

23. Oda - 1.) Janissary barracks; each military figure and Orta had their own barracks. The first janissary odas were in Edirne, and after the conquest of Istanbul (1453), it became the main cantonment of the Janissaries. In the 17th century, there were 199 odes in Turkey. 2.) Later, the name of the oda was transferred to the military units that were stationed in them. The word Oda and Orta came to be used as equivalent.

24. Chorbaji is an officer rank in the janissary army, commander of the Orta (troop) or military figure (the latter was more often called belyukbashi).

25. Armorer is djebedji, represented a paramilitary economic organization with broad responsibilities. A part of djebedji was engaged in manufacturing a variety of personal weapons, military equipment, and ammunition: arrows, bows, sabres, shields, spears, armor, guns, pistols, gunpowder, bullets. Other djebedji were required to guard these weapons, distribute them to military units, deliver them to the battlefield, collect abandoned weapons, and repair them. Djebedji's workshops and warehouses were in Istanbul, but, in addition, they had many fortresses, especially the border. If necessary, djebedji could also force to produce weapons by workshops that were not part of their organization. 2.) Cannoneer (topchu) is a kind of state-supported regular army. They were divided into two independent categories: 1) those who cast the guns (the main cast house - Topkhane - was located in Istanbul); 2) the actual gunners who participated in the battles.

The corps of gunners began to be created together with the Janissaries, moreover, the cast business was organized not by the Turks, but by captive Christians or Europeans who went to the service of the Turkish Sultan and often adopted the Muslim faith.

26. Muhtasib is a person who is obliged to look after the prices of artisans and merchants' sold goods, and the correctness of weights and measures. He had the right to punish those who cheated in trade matters by applying incorrect measures of weight or length.

27. Subashi-1.) Subashi state (Miri Subashi) - an official who performed the duties of the chief of police in cities. During the day, he examined shopping malls, bazaars, the safety of houses and bridges, and at night, together with asesbashi, patrolled the city, organized searches, detained suspicious people, and so on. He obeyed Qadi. 2.) Subashi Timar is a feud from among the military-feudal nobility of the province. This Subashi was usually located in Kasaba and in fortresses. In peacetime, he was their ruler, and in wartime, he went on a campaign as the commander of a detachment of sipahi numbering 250-300 horsemen. He obeyed Alaibey.

28. Qibla-the side where Muslims turn their faces during prayer, the direction to Mecca.

29 .Ayak-a measure of length equal to half a construction arshin (0.3556 m)

30. this Term has three meanings: 1) date, 2) chronogram, 3) history. Tarikh is a phrase, prose or verse, in which the date of an event is revealed using the numeric value of Arabic letters (AB-Jedha).

31. Ceramic production in Iznik (the former Byzantine city of Nicaea) developed at least in the last quarter of the XV century. The establishment of a large ceramic center in Iznik corresponded, first of all, to the needs of monumental architecture – the design of the interiors of mosques and palaces of the fast-growing cities of the Ottoman state, and, first of all, Istanbul.

32. Bal-emez (from Italian "ballo mezzo") is a long-range gun used both on land and at sea, firing cores weighing up to 50 kg.

33. Shahane or Shahi (literally, "breaking cannon") is a large-caliber field gun ("Shahi zarbzen"), with an average weight of 8 cantars (about 440 kg); the caliber is approximately 8 pounds (about 102 – 106 mm).

34. This refers to the Moldavian ruler; in the period described, the ruler of Moldavia was most likely Vasily Lupu (1634-1654), who was related to the Ukrainian Hetman Bogdan Khmelnitsky.

35. Janissaries (lit. "new army" [Jani-Chery]) are the main category of regular infantry troops of the Ottoman Empire. They were paid by the state. They began to be created in 1361 under Sultan Murad I. First, the Janissaries were recruited from prisoners of war, and then the janissaries were supplemented by forcibly recruited Christian boys, usually aged 7 to 12 years, who were first raised in Turkish peasant families (where they converted to Islam), and then received special training in an institution called Adjemi oglanlary ("foreign boys"). The Janissaries were a professional staff army who had received good military training and had been brought up in the spirit of irreconcilable Muslim fanaticism. Initially, they were not allowed to marry, engage in crafts or trade. They were a formidable military and police force, as long as predatory wars brought large profits to the Treasury, as long as the sultans could pay them high salaries and gain their favor with generous gifts. The privileged position of the Janissaries led to the transformation of this position into a hereditary one. In 1639, the devshirme system (recruitment of Christian boys) was abolished, and the national composition of the janissary army changed: it has become predominantly Turkish. The General economic, social and cultural decline of the Ottoman Empire, the crisis of its military and feud system, which intensified in the XVII century, and the beginning of serious defeats in external wars led to a sharp drop in the fighting qualities of the Janissaries and to important changes in the social character of the janissary army. Without receiving a regular salary from the emptying Treasury, they began to engage in trade, crafts, and, to no lesser extent, robbing the population. Most of them started families. More than once in history, a significant part of the Janissaries, who shared all the hardships of the working people of Turkey, was the initiator or participant of popular indignation and unrest. The discontent of the Janissaries was also repeatedly used by reactionary circles to organize and conduct Palace revolution. The Janissaries who served as the main support of the throne in the past, already in the eighteenth century became a force more dangerous to the Central government than to its external and internal opponents. In 1826, Sultan Mahmud II destroyed the janissary corps, partly destroying, partly disbanding its composition.

36. Ribat is a specially fortified part of the fortress.

37. Shahid is a Muslim who died on the battlefield in the struggle with foreign enemies or rebels; it was "the true (haqiqi) Shahid". Those Muslims who died during a natural disaster, went missing, drowned, or gave their lives in the field of science, etc., were called "legal (or nominal) Shahids" (hyukmi shehid).

38. Qadr Night, Night of Decree, Night of Power in Islam – the 27th night of Ramadan (the ninth month of the Arab lunar year), the revered night of the fasting month of Ramadan, associated with the sending of the Koran to the prophet Muhammad in the form of revelation in the Hira cave of mount Jabal al-Nur. It is customary to ask God for forgiveness for sins committed and read the Koran on the Laylat al-Qadr (Night of Determination).

39. Ghazi is a Muslim involved in Jihad. It is an honorary title given to a person who became famous in the "Holy war" against the infidels (kafirs).

40. George II Rakoczi (George, Yuri) (Hungarian II. Rákóczi György; 30 January 1621, Sarospatak - 7 June 1660, Nagyvarad) is a prince of Transylvania from the Hungarian Calvinist family of Rakoczy (1648 – 1657, 1659 – 1660). The campaign of the Turkish and Tatar troops in Poland against the troops of the Transylvanian Prince Gyorgy II Rakoczi was preceded by the following events. By 1655, Poland, after major defeats suffered in the war with Russia, asked for peace on any terms. Russian Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich was even offered the Polish throne. The Austrian Emperor Ferdinand III imposed his mediation in the negotiations between the two powers. Poland's predicament was taken advantage of by neighboring states. In 1656, the Swedish King Charles X began a war against Poland. While the endless negotiations between the Polish and Russian governments stretched, the Swedish troops advanced far into the Polish lands. After the Russian troops came out against the Swedes, the Swedish king entered into an alliance with the Transylvanian prince. The anti-Polish alliance was joined by Ukrainian Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky and Duke of Prussia Elector of Brandenburg Friedrich Wilhelm.

In the winter of 1657 Rakoczy with the Hungarian army and auxiliary detachments sent from the Wallachian and Moldavian lords, moved to Poland. Bogdan Khmelnitsky was unable to march in person due to illness. Ukrainian detachments were sent to Galicia to help Rakoczy under the command of the Kiev colonel Zhdanovich and Yuri Khmelnitsky, who was chosen in April 1657 as the punishment hetman. Rakoczy's troops reached Warsaw in a short time and took it.

The inconsistency of actions and major disagreements in the camp of the participants of the anti-Polish coalition, the irreconcilable position of Russia, interested in preserving Polish statehood, the military assistance of Turkey and the Crimean khan, who were afraid of strengthening the Transylvanian prince, helped the Polish government to get rid of the terrible danger.

In summer, 1657 Rakoczy who had lost his allies and found himself in virtual isolation, met with the Tatar-Turkish army. After a three-day battle, both sides were forced to make peace. Although the Hungarian army was guaranteed complete immunity under the treaty, the Tatars violated the terms of the armistice. part of the hungarian army was killed, some were captured. Rakoczy with a few people managed to escape to Transylvania.

41. Kethuda is representatives of the Wallachian and Moldavian hospodars who lived in Istanbul. They conducted the political and ecclesiastical affairs of their lords with the Sultan's government and the Patriarchate. There were always two of them – one from the Wallachian ruler and one from the Moldavian.

42. Kapudjibashi is one of the dignitaries of the Sultan's court, the chief of the Palace gatekeepers. When Mehmed II Fatih ruled, there was one Kapujibashi, in the XVII century their number ranged from 12 to 21. They had between 500 and 2000 Kapujibashi under their command. The Kapujibashi were required to guard the doors of the Sultan's palace, to present foreign ambassadors to the Divan and Padishah, and to send important secret messages to the Eyalet rulers if necessary. Kapujibashi were also used to deal with Eyalet rulers or other important state dignitaries who were not pleasing to the Sultan. They also accompanied to the place of persons appointed to the posts of voivodes of Wallachia, Moldavia or Bey of Transylvania. The rulers of Wallachia and Moldavia were obliged every year to send gifts to four Kapujibashi.

43. Batyr is an honorary title of the Mongolian and Turkic peoples.

44. The day of celebrations held on the occasion of the return of Muslim pilgrims who performed the Hajj to Mecca to worship the Kaaba temple and to Medina to the tomb of Muhammad. A Muslim who performed the Hajj received the honorary title of hajj.

45. Kardash-Cossacks, i.e. fraternal Cossacks - the Turks called by this name a part of the Ukrainian Cossacks, whose elders in 1624 "fraternized" and concluded an alliance treaty with the Crimean Khan Muhammad Giray III (1623-1627) and his brother Kalga – Sultan Shahin Giray against the Turks. Having lost the throne, Muhammad-Giray fled to his "Cossack brothers" on the Dnieper. Leading with his brother both the Dnieper and Don Cossacks, Muhammad-Giray made many campaigns against the Turkish fortresses in the Crimea and the Crimean Tatars hostile to him. He was killed in another raid in 1629.

Maintaining relations of "friendship and brotherhood" with a part of the Ukrainian Cossacks became the rule for the subsequent Crimean khans of the XVII century. The Crimean Khans resorted to the help of the Cossacks to fight for the khan's throne against the next Turkish proteges, to organize large military campaigns in Poland, Moldova, etc.The alliances between the Crimean Tatars and the Cossacks were not very strong and, if they went against the interests of one of the parties, were quickly liquidated.

46. Nureddin or nureddi-sultan is the second heir in the Crimean Khanate, the third person in the khanate after the khan and Kalga-Sultan. Kalga, or Kalga-Sultan – the first heir in the Crimean Khanate, the second person after the khan in the state.

Evliya Chelebi "Book of Travel". Abstracts from the work of a Turkish traveller of the 17th century. Translation. Issue 1. Lands of Moldova and Ukraine. Moscow. Publishing house of Oriental literature. 1961, pp. 42 – 46.

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