From February 11 to March 23, the year 2019, employees of the SRL “Archeology” of the Transnistrian State University named after T. G. Shevchenko conducted research on the lower tier of the Southeast tower of the citadel of Bendery Fortress. By the beginning of the excavation, the lower tier was filled almost to the level of the modern entrance from the courtyard side. At a depth of 3.35 m from the entrance level, the floor of the lower tier is cleared made of a layer of lime crumb bonded with mortar. Its construction is connected with the first construction horizon of the tower (1538-1539). There are a few fragments of ceramic art of the 16th century on the floor, as well as small fragments of products made of iron and copper. The walls are carefully plastered. Probably, the lower tier was used as a warehouse in 1540-1584. The second construction horizon is represented by filling the lower tier of the tower in the form of a light yellow loesslike loam with a thickness of 1.6-1.7 m. The second horizon was preliminary dated back to 1584, since exactly this year by the order of the Turkish Sultan, the Moldavian ruler Peter Hromoi began the reconstruction of the half ruined by the Polish-Cossack raids fortifications. Within a few months, an inner moat was dug and the Lower Fortress was built. Loam from the filling of the ditch was used to fill the lower tier of the South-East tower, and probably other citadel towers, to strengthen them against the intensified siege artillery and undermining. Fragments of ceramic art of the 16th century and animal bones were found in a loam layer. The third construction horizon is represented by eight radial buttresses and a central column made of limestone slabs in mortar, located 1.5 m below the entrance to the tower. Their foundations, admitted into the loam layer, are strengthened by numerous fragments of burnt tiles, ceramic pipes, cast-iron cannon balls and grenades (at least 50 specimens). Between the “buttresses”, along the perimeter of the walls, from a hewn slab and unprocessed pieces of limestone, a special pavement is laid out in a circle. The horizon is dated back to the last quarter of the 18th century. Damaged cannon balls and traces of the fire are associated with the consequences of the siege and assault of the fortress by the Russian army in 1770. It is most likely that the reconstruction of the lower tier of the tower was part of a large-scale reconstruction of the fortress by the Turks under the leadership of French engineers in 1794. The two horizons associated with the use of the lower tier of the tower in the 20th century are investigated above. The formation of the fourth horizon is associated with the events of the Bendery armed uprising on May 27, 1919. Itis materials indicate a fire in the tower as a result of hostilities. The fifth horizon was deposited mainly in the 1970s - 1990s. as a result of the economic activity of the Soviet army units deployed in the fortress.
Studies of the south-eastern tower of the citadel of the Bendery fortress showed that at least this tower, as well as probably the entire citadel, was not built by the Genoese or Moldavian rulers, as some authors assumed, but by the Turks during the reign of the Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent in the late 1530s. Subsequently, the tower was strengthened and reconstructed by the Turks, used for various purposes by the militaries of the Russian, Romanian, French, German and Soviet armies.
DESCRIPTION OF THE STRATIGRAPHIC HORIZONS OF THE LOWER TIER OF THE SOUTH-EAST TOWER OF THE CITADEL
Copy of open sheet
From February, 11 to March 23, 2019 the Dniester archaeological expedition of the PSU named after T.G. Shevchenko conducted research on the South-East tower of the citadel of Bendery Fortress.
The work was carried out on the basis of Open Sheet No. 10 issued by the State Service for Culture of the PMR to S.N. Razumov - Candidate of Historical Sciences, senior research associate of the SRL "Archeology" of the PSU named after T.G. Shevchenko.
In addition to S. N. Razumov, the following collaborators took part: Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Scientific Associate of the Scientific Research Laboratory "Archeology" S. A. Fidelsky; Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher of the Scientific Research Laboratory "Archeology" I. A. Chetverikov; Researcher of the Scientific Research Laboratory "Archeology" S.O. Simonenko; The head of the SRL "Archeology" is Candidate of Historical Sciences V. S. Sinik.
Geographical and topographical position, general description of the research object
The fortress is located on the high right bank of the lower course of the Dniester within the town of Bendery, the Transnistrian Moldavian Republic. Currently, the fortress ensemble consists of three parts. The earliest is the citadel (originally a castle) in the form of an irregular quadrangle measuring 84x101x75x101 m, with eight towers along the perimeter (Fig. 1; 2), built by the Turks, presumably in the late 30s. of XVI century. Later, in 1584, on the second coastal terrace, under the citadel, the Lower Fortress (1.1 ha) was built. The outer (Big) fortress, limited by the bastion front, was built on the upper coastal plateau (62.35 ha) at the beginning of the XVIII century. (Astvatsaturov 2007: 44; Krasnozhon 2011). Small archaeological research was carried out by I. Hinku in 1970 (Field, Byrnya 1974: 84) and N.V. Goltseva in 1990 (Goltseva 1990: 1) only on the territory of the External Fortress. The citadel was not subjected to scientific excavations until 2019.
From the book of N.A. Marx, 1917
The south-eastern citadel tower closest to the Dniester is based on a low polygonal basement. In the plan it has the shape of a circle with a segment cut off (from the side of the yard, from the north-west) (Fig. 3-5). Diameter 12 m, wall thickness up to 2.5 m, height 13 m. The tower has four tiers. The lower tier, examined in 2019, had no entrance and loopholes. Entrance to the second tier is from the courtyard (originally had an external stairs, since the level of the courtyard was 1.5-2 m lower). The third tier is accessed from the curtain wall of the curtain. A stone circular stairs leads from the third tier to the upper, fourth, with merlons around the perimeter. Five artillery loopholes were built in the walls of the second tier, four loopholes and one fireplace in the walls of the third tier (Fig. 5).
By the beginning of the excavation, the lower tier was filled almost to the level of the modern entrance from the courtyard side.
Filling of the lower tier was removed manually using shovels and buckets. All detected objects (pits, masonry) were cleared and recorded on drawings and photographs.
DESCRIPTION OF STRATIGRAPHIC HORIZONS
OF THE LOWER TIER OF THE SOUTH-EAST TOWER OF THE CITADEL
At a depth of 3.35 m from the entrance level, the floor of the lower tier is cleared in the form of a layer of limestone crumb bonded with a mortar (Fig. 7; Fig. 8: 1). Its construction is connected with the first construction horizon of the tower (1538-1539). Small fragments of iron and copper products were found on the floor:
a fragment of a blade (tip) of an iron forged knife, measuring 28x11x3 mm (Fig. 20: 6);
a copper product in the form of a plate rolled into a tube, dimensions 68x41x1 mm, plate thickness 0.3 mm (Fig. 17: 6);
a fragment of the copper upholstery of a wooden (?) object in the form of a trapezoidal plate with a curved wide base, dimensions 64x35x0.3 mm (Fig. 17: 4);
forged iron nail, dimensions 32x7x6 mm, cap 14x13 mm (Fig. 14: 2);
forged iron rod, dimensions 35x7x3 mm (Fig. 15: 8);
sea shell, damaged, 23x10 mm (Fig. 15: 9).
In sector 1, fragments of pottery ceramics were found (Fig. 10: 1-2,4-7), including:
The corolla fragment is made of well-worn clay with admixtures of sand (Fig. 10: 5). The dough is dense, smooth, light brown. The surface of the fragment is rough, poorly processed, especially from the outside. There is no engobe. Corolla selected, bent outward. Its upper edge is even 0.5 cm wide. A ribbon-shaped handle in cross section adjoined the upper edge of the rim. The diameter of the mouth of the vessel was 24 cm. The wall thickness of the vessel is 0.4 cm.
The fragment of the rim of the bowl-shaped vessel is made of well-worn clay with admixtures of sand and shiny particles (Fig. 10: 7). The dough is dense, smooth, light brown. The surface is uneven, rough. The corolla is selected, its upper edge is evenly slightly bent outward, 1.2 cm wide. The inner side of the fragment and the upper edge of the corolla are covered with white paint or varnish (possibly poor-quality watering). The diameter of the mouth of the vessel is 24 cm.
The fragment of the wall is made of well-worn clay with admixtures of sand and shiny particles (Fig. 10: 3). The dough is dense, smoot of brick color. The inner and outer surface of the fragment is smooth, well smoothed. There is no engobe. On the outside of the fragment, the place of transition from the body to the neck, which is clearly marked by an edge, is fixed. This place accounts for the maximum diameter of the vessel, which was 13 cm. The wall thickness of the body and neck is 0.75 cm.
In sector 6, pottery (Fig. 10: 8-15) is represented by a corolla fragment, two fragments of walls with an ornament, five fragments of bottoms and eight fragments of walls, including:
The corolla fragment is made of well-worn clay with admixtures of sand and fireclay (Fig. 10: 9). The dough is dense, smooth, gray. Firing is smooth. The inner and outer surface of the fragment is light brown in color with a gray shade. Corolla is selected, bent outward. Has a flange for a cover. Its upper edge is pointed. The diameter of the mouth of the vessel is 17 cm. The wall thickness is 0.5 cm.
A fragment of the wall is made of well-worn clay with admixtures of sand and white particles (Fig. 10: 8). The dough is dense, smooth, like the inner and outer surfaces of a fragment, of a brick color.
Firing is smooth. On the outside of the fragment, flutes are located horizontally. The vessel wall thickness is 0.4 cm.
A fragment of the wall is made of well-worn clay with admixtures of sand and white particles (Fig. 10: 10). The dough is dense, smooth, like the outer and inner surface of a light gray fragment. Firing is smooth. On the outside of the fragment, flutes are located horizontally.
The fragment of bottom is made of well-worn clay with admixtures of sand and white particles (Fig. 10: 11). The dough is dense, smooth and light gray. Firing is smooth. The inner and outer surface of the brown fragment with a brownish shade. The bottom of the slab has a flange, with a diameter of 10 cm and a thickness of 0.6 cm. The wall thickness of the vessel is 0.7 cm.
A fragment of the bottom is made of well-worn clay with admixtures of sand and shiny particles (Fig. 10: 12). The dough is dense, smooth, like the inner surface of the fragment, black. The outer surface of the fragment is light gray with traces of low-quality firing in the form of dark spots. The bottom is tiled, has a rim, with a diameter of 7 cm and a thickness of 0.4 cm. The wall thickness of the vessel is 0.7 cm.
The bottom fragment is made of well-worn clay with admixtures of sand, fireclay and shiny particles (Fig. 10:13). The dough is dense, smooth, light gray. Firing is smooth. The inner and outer surfaces are gray. The bottom is tiled, has a slightly pronounced rim. Traces of cut with a thread are fixed on the sole. The diameter of the bottom is 13 cm and a thickness of 0.8 cm. The wall thickness of the vessel is 0.6 cm.
On the border of the fifth and sixth sectors, a massive iron forged crutch is slanted into the floor, wood decay is fixed around it.
The walls are carefully plastered (Fig. 8: 1). Probably, the lower tier in 1540-1584 was used as a storage.
In sector 4, at a depth of -1.4 m from the entrance level (directly below it), a niche in the wall was found, blocked by three vertically placed limestone blocks (Fig. 8: 1) or a window measuring about 550x250 mm. Note that at the time of the construction of the tower, this hole should have been located slightly above the level of the courtyard. Perhaps it originally served for ventilation and / or for loading and unloading goods.
Thus, no evidence that the tower could have been built by the Genoese (Vilkov et al. 2018: 12-15) was not found during excavations. Available materials most likely indicate the construction of a stone castle by the Turks in the first half of the 16th century. Flanking tall towers extended far beyond the walls of the fortress are characteristic of the period of active use of artillery for defense (Plamenicka 2012: 212-213, 318). In the Northwest Black Sea region, serf artillery became widely used only in the 15th century. (Flamenitska 2012: 212; Misko 2012: 537), while by the end of the XIV century the right-bank Transnistria became part of the Moldavian Principality. The castles in both Belgorod-Dniester and Bendery have no signs of the Genoese provincial fortress architecture, examples of which are widely represented in Crimea (Krasnozhon 2012: 157). Based on the results of small excavations by I.G. Khinku in 1970, it was also concluded from the outside of the eastern wall of the citadel that the stone castle was not built here until the first half of the 16th century. (Field, Byrnya 1974: 84).
The second construction horizon is represented by filling the lower tier of the tower in the form of a light yellow loesslike loam with a thickness of 1.6-1.7 m. Numerous animal bones were found in the loam layer (poultry, cattle and small cattle). Other findings include:
bone-carving production waste in the form of the root part of a wild boar canine with a sawed-off side plate (Fig. 11: 3), dimensions 70x28x20 mm;
chair flint on a plate chop, Dniester raw materials, light gray translucent, dorsal surface rounded and patinated, clogged in the distal part (Fig. 10: 6), dimensions 28x25x3 mm;
turned disc-shaped slate pebbles (playing chip?) with a recess on one of the planes (Fig. 14: 5), diameter 20 mm, thickness 8 mm;
4-6) forged iron nails, dimensions 38x9x10 mm (cap 16x10 cm), 88x7x6 mm, 65x8x5 mm (Fig. 14: 1,14,15).
It should be noted that during examining the South-East tower of the citadel of Bendery fortress, a total of 215 fragments of ceramic vessels made on a potter's wheel were found (Fig. 10-16). The bulk of the finds (207 fragments - 96.3%) belongs to ordinary ceramics, six fragments (2.8%) of irrigated ceramics and two fragments (0.9%) belong to faience ware. The vast majority of fragments of ceramic vessels (more than 90%) belong to the second stratigraphic horizon, and fell into the tower during the reconstruction of the fortress in 1584. We can assume that they appeared in the tower as a result of the gradual failure of kitchen and tableware used to feed a large number of workers.
Analysis of simple pottery ceramics showed that most fragments belong to pots of various shapes. As a rare exception, fragments of one-handed jugs and bowls are found (Fig. 11: 8; Fig. 15: 1, 2, 7). As a rule, finely grained sand is present in the dough, as well as white (limestone) and shiny (mica) particles. Basically, firing is smooth and through. Depending on the firing mode, the vessels were brick, gray or black. The most numerous findings include fragments of pot corollas, most often with flanges under the lid, as well as bottoms. The ornament is mainly represented by horizontal flutes, which were located on the shoulders of blood vessels. In the only case, an ornament was fixed on the outer side of the vessel wall, combining a stamped pattern and wavy cut lines (Fig. 12: 4).
Among the discovered ceramics there are fragments of red clay glazed dishes. Basically, it is represented by open-form vessels (bowls), from which fragments of corollas and bottoms are preserved (Fig. 15: 15; Fig. 16: 1). In a single case, a fragment of the leg of a closed vessel, possibly a jug or a pot, was found (Fig. 15:12). Ceramic dishes were covered with both monochrome glaze (mustard color) and glaze, combining different colors in one product (white, brown and green). On all fragments of watering, it is applied to the inner part of the vessel, as well as to the upper edge of the whisk of the bowl.
The presented collection of pottery ceramics finds the closest analogues among the vessels identified in the study of medieval monuments of the Dniester-Prut interfluve. First of all, this ceramics originating from the urban centers of Old Orhei and Costesti, as well as numerous rural settlements of the indicated territory - Baltsaty I, Poyana, Stary Malaesti and others (Polevoy, Byrnya 1974: 60-62, Fig. 21-24). In aggregate, the entire complex of the considered ceramics of the first and second stratigraphic horizons dates back to the 15th-16th centuries, which corresponds to the dating of Moldavian medieval ceramics known to date (Byrnya 1969: 197).
So, the second horizon was tentatively dated 1584, because it was at the beginning of this year when the Turkish Sultan ordered the Moldavian ruler Pyotr Khromoi to reconstruct the dilapidated Polish-Cossack raids of fortifications (Krasnozhon 2011: 247). Within a few months, an inner moat was dug and the Lower Fortress was built (Fig. V. 1). Loesslike loam from the ditch filling was used to backfill the lower tier of the South-East, and probably other citadel towers, to strengthen them against increased siege artillery, digging and undermining. A similar method of strengthening the lower tiers of castle towers is also known for a number of other fortresses of Podnestrovie - Khotin, Sorok, Kamenets-Podolsky (Chebotarenko 1972: 217-218; Plamenitska 2012: 333).
The strengthening of the Bendery castle bore fruit: in the spring of 1595, the combined Moldavian-Cossack army of Nalivaiko and Loboda defeated the many-thousands detachment of the Bendery sandzhak, but the assault on new castle fortifications ended in complete failure and led to large losses of the Cossacks (Astvatsaturov 2007; 47-48, 64). Thus, the second stratigraphic horizon reflected the general changes in fortification art that took place in the second half of the 16th century in the Northern Black Sea region and neighboring regions.
The third construction horizon is represented by eight radial masonry “buttresses” and a central column made of limestone slabs in mortar, located 1.5 m below the entrance to the tower. Radial masonry is oriented strictly to the cardinal points (Fig. 6: 1). Their foundations, admitted into the layer of light yellow loam of the 1580s. (probably, before the construction of the masonry, the upper part of the loam layer was removed from the tower), fortified by numerous fragments of burnt tiles, ceramic pipes, cast-iron cannon balls and bombs. Between the “buttresses”, along the perimeter of the walls, from a hewn slab and unprocessed pieces of limestone, a special pavement is laid out in a circle. (in sectors 1 and 4 of the slab, the pavements were shifted in previous years with probes filling the tower). The upper two rows of masonry consist of massive carefully hewn limestone slabs of a sub-square shape with dimensions of about 500x500 mm, a thickness of 120-150 mm, top coated with a thin layer of mortar. The surface of all eight clutches is strictly horizontal, at the same depth (-1.50-1.51 m from the entrance level - obviously, it was verified using the water level). The bottom six rows of the “buttresses” masonry consist of almost untreated fragments of limestone, broken mortar in the mortar. Only the first two or three rows of masonry towered above the loam, as evidenced by the influx of the solution (Fig. 7; Fig. 8: 1). The bottom of the pits in which the radial masonry was built was at a depth of about 2.3 m from the entrance level.
The surface of the central “pillar” (Fig. 6-8) is 100 mm below the surface of the masonry. Its upper part is covered with a massive square limestone slab, 700x700 mm in size, about 220 mm thick. Only this plate towered above the loam. The remaining 12-13 rows of masonry in a pit -3.03 m deep from the entrance level were made carelessly from various fragments of limestone, both hewn and unprocessed.
All finds of this horizon were found in the filling of the pits in which the radial “buttresses” and the central “pillar” were built, as well as in a specially dug hole 1 of the third sector of the tower (west-north-west).
Pit 1 (Fig. 6: 2), of a rectangular shape, with dimensions 360x240 mm, depth -2.04 m from the entrance level, or 0.36 m from the surface of the loam of horizon 2 into which it was let in. It was covered with limestone tiles with a thickness of 80-100 mm, over which a thick layer of ash and charcoal was fixed. Eight cast-iron grenades (Fig. 17: 1) with a diameter of 80 mm were stacked in a hole in a pit, the diameters of the holes for the ignition tubes are 11-12 mm, and the wall thickness was up to 10 mm. Unlike the vast majority of other grenades and horizon 3 nuclei, the grenades from pit 1 were not damaged and were not part of the structures.
Four damaged cast-iron grenades with a diameter of 75-86 mm were also found (Fig. 18), and a fragment of another grenade with a diameter of about 90 mm. 39 whole cast-iron cores (Fig. 18-19) in size can be divided into several groups:
diameter 41-44 mm (three copies);
55-60 mm (12 copies);
64-65 mm (seven copies);
70 mm (seven copies);
75 mm (three copies);
85-90 mm (five copies);
120 mm (two copies, from one fragment about 1.4 cannon balls).
Almost all cannon balls are deformed, many are covered with mortar. Thus, a total of 39 cannon balls (including one fragment) and 13 grenades (including the fragment) were found, of which only 8 grenades were not shot. With horizon 3, metal and clay finds were also found:
a fragment of a highly melted copper (?) product, dimensions 25x20x19 mm (Fig. 15:10; Fig. 17: 5);
a fragment of an iron forged knife, dimensions 88x18x3 mm (Fig. 20: 2);
an elongated lead ingot (for casting bullets?) measuring 85x16x12 mm (Fig. 20: 3);
a ceramic object in the form of an ellipsoid with a flattened end part, in which an iron rod with an iron plate is mounted. The surface of the item is smoothed, firing is good. Dimensions 90x60x50 mm (Fig. 17: 3);
corner tile fragment, burnt, dimensions 80x70x17 mm;
whetstone of shale river pebbles, burnt, dimensions 68x46x17 mm (Fig. 16: 3);
7-9) fragments of water pipes made of red clay, diameter up to 120 mm, thickness 14 mm (Fig. 20: 7, 8.10);
a fragment of a strongly curved tile, dimensions 160x130x17 mm (Fig. 20: 9);
the holder for the lamp (?) is iron forged (Fig. 19: 2), in the form of a pointed rod 220 mm long, square section 18x18 mm. A strip of iron bent into an open ring is welded to the rod, the ends are bent outward. The diameter of the ring is 120 mm, width 20 mm, thickness 4 mm;
the peak tip (?) (Fig. 17: 2) is iron conical, rolled from a plate, length 130 mm, diameter of the base 28 mm, thickness of the plate at the base 3 mm, attached to the shaft with an iron rivet with a diameter of 7 mm. Similar peak tips were found during excavations of the fortress of Soroka in sediments of the late XVII - XVIII centuries. (Chebotarenko 1972: 227, Fig. 18: b, g); iron forged nail hook, length 38 mm, cross section 4x4 mm (Fig. 20: 5); forged iron nail hook (fig. 23: 6), length 110 mm, sub-square cross-section 5x4 mm, square hat 17x17 mm.
Pottery ceramics is represented by two fragments of corollas, three fragments of walls of irrigation ceramics, two fragments of walls with an ornament, a fragment of a wall with a well-defined rib, a fragment of a handle, a fragment of the bottom, a leg of an irrigation vessel with graffiti and five fragments of walls.
A corolla fragment is made of well-worn clay with sand admixtures (Fig. 15: 6). The dough is dense, uniform, like the inner and outer surface of the fragment, gray. Firing is uniform. Corolla selected, strongly bent outward. Its upper edge is rounded. On the inside has a flange under the cover. The diameter of the mouth is 14 cm. The vessel wall thickness was 0.5 cm.
A corolla fragment is made of well-worn clay without visible impurities (Fig. 15: 11). The dough is dense, smooth, like the inner and outer surface of the fragment, light yellow in color. Corolla is distinguished, straight, expanding to the upper edge. The upper edge of the corolla is even 0.9 cm wide. The diameter of the mouth is 20 cm. The wall thickness of the vessel is 0.6 cm.
A fragment of the wall is made of well-worn clay with admixtures of sand, white and shiny particles (Fig. 15: 14). The dough is dense, uniform, like the inner and outer surface of the fragment, light brown in color. On the outer side of the fragment, the place of transition from the body to the neck is clearly marked by a rib, which accounts for the maximum diameter of the vessel. It is equal to 10 cm. The wall thickness of the body was 0.7 cm, the neck 0.5 cm.
A fragment of the leg with a hem is made of well-worn clay with admixtures of sand (Fig. 15: 12). The dough is dense, smooth. Firing is smooth. The outer surface is light yellow, the inner surface is light gray. The leg is small in size, conical in shape, 1.1 cm high and 3.1-4 cm in diameter. A relief girdle is fixed in the upper part of the leg. A notch is marked on the sole.
The bottom fragment is made of well-worn clay with admixtures of sand and white particles (Fig. 15: 13). The dough is dense, smooth, like the inner and outer surface of a light gray fragment. The diameter of the bottom is 10 cm, the thickness is 0.5 cm. Traces of cut with a thread are fixed on the sole.
The surviving truncated-conical irrigation ceramic profile (plate or dish) is made of well-worn clay with admixtures of sand, as well as white particles of small and large sizes (Fig. 15: 15). Clay is brick color. The outer surface is covered with a light brown engobe with traces of white watering. Part of the white watering was noted on the upper edge of the corolla. The inner surface of the vessel is completely covered with glaze in the form of narrow / wide vertical stripes of brown, white and green colors. Corolla is not distinguished, straight, its upper edge is rounded. The bottom is tiled with a flange with a diameter of 16 cm. The diameter of the mouth is 22.5 cm. The height of the vessel is 5 cm.
A fragment of the stem of glazed ceramics is made of well-worn clay with admixtures of sand (Fig. 16: 2). The dough is dense, uniform brick color. Firing is smooth. The outer surface is rough and without engobe, with traces of drips a drop of watering.
The inner surface is covered with mustard-colored irrigation. Leg selected, small in size, has a hem. The maximum diameter of the foot is 4.9 cm. The wall thickness of the vessel was 0.4-0.8 cm. Graffiti marked on the sole of the foot depicting a boat under sail (?)
In addition, a significant amount of charred fragments of bricks, tiles, ceramic pipes, wrought iron products (Fig. 20: 4), animal bones (kitchen remains), fragments of cast-iron grenades and bombs were found between the walls of the pits and masonry.
Horizon 3 is dated back to the last quarter of the 18th century. Damaged kernels and traces of a fire may be associated with the consequences of the siege and assault on the fortress by the Russian army in 1770. It is known that massive shelling of the fortress from July 21 to September 16, 1770 was ongoing, from one hundred to five hundred cores were fired per day (Astvatsaturov 2007: 85; Vilkov et al., 2018: 42). Incendiary bombs were widely used. After the capture, the fortress burned for another three days (Astvatsaturov 2007: 85-87). Note that fragments of similar cast-iron nuclei together with fragments of tiles were found in 1990 when cleaning the bottom of the southern section of the citadel moat (Goltseva 1990: 8–9, Table 12).
The population returned to the fortress given back to the Turks only in 1776, but the restoration of the destroyed fortifications continued extremely slowly after that (Astvatsaturov 2007: 88). Most likely, the reconstruction of the lower tier of the tower was part of a large-scale reconstruction of the fortress by the Turks under the leadership of French engineers in 1793-1794. (Astvatsaturov 2007: 91). Radial masonry had to hold a powerful ceiling (the floor of the lower tier of the tower at that time), and the central “pillar” probably served as a support for the spiral staircase and / or ceiling. Between the floor beams and the surface of the loam left an empty space 0.25-0.3 m high, probably for ventilation, to avoid rotting the tree.
Fragments of stone slabs, bricks, tiles, ceramic pipes, bearing the traces of a strong fire, and also the remains of the shelling of 1770, were widely used as building material. Such "buttresses" or pylons were built by the Turks in the Western tower of the Kamenetz-Podolsky castle during its occupation after 1672. It is significant that the tower was badly damaged during the assault and was almost completely rebuilt. However, unlike the ones we studied, the pylons in the Kamenetz-Podolsky castle were not dug into the ground, they stood open to their full height. At the same time, their construction is explained by the need to maintain a powerful ceiling, on which heavy guns stood (Plamenitska 2012: 418-422, Fig. 322-323).
Hidden in a special depression (pit 1), cast-iron grenades covered by a layer of fire can be associated with the events of the siege of the fortress by the army of the Russian Empire in 1770 (most likely) or in 1789.
The thickness of the deposits of this stratigraphic horizon was about 0.4 m closer to the entrance to the tower, and somewhat less in the sectors farthest from it. These deposits consisted of a large amount of construction waste, as well as various products of the late XIX - early XX centuries. The layer is saturated with charcoal, ash and.
In filling horizon 4 found:
buckles from horse harness (seven copies) massive double (Fig. 9: 2; Fig. 24: 2, 4), dimensions 90x60 mm, cross-sectional diameter 8 mm, tongue 60 mm long, tin cylinders on both sides of the frame to protect the length of belts 40 mm each;
the fastenings of the harness (six copies) are massive (Fig. 24: 5), from a pair of parallel-welded rods curved into a “bracket” at the ends of one iron frame for belts, the sizes of “brackets” are 150x55 mm, the diameter of the cross-section of the rods is 14 mm, frame sizes 40x25 mm, section diameter 6 mm;
massive mounts of artillery teams (Fig. 22: 3) (eight copies) in the form of two curly U-shaped brackets connected by a pair of massive screws with iron frames for belts at the ends, brackets 300x40x20 mm, thickness 3 mm, screws 210 each mm, diameter 30 mm;
the arches from the teams (Fig. 22: 1) (nine specimens) are asymmetrical, 580 mm long, up to 25 mm wide, up to 8 mm thick. Closer to one of the endings there is a rectangular frame measuring 70x65 mm, on which a triangular iron buckle with dimensions 80x70 mm is fixed, the cross-sectional diameter is 10 mm. The short end of the arc is bent into a loop with a diameter of 40 mm, on a long frame measuring 40x40 mm, the diameter of the cross section is 7 mm;
arcs from the saddle frame (Fig. 22: 2) (six copies), length 340 mm, height 160 mm, width of the arc from above 85 mm, 40 mm at the ends, 2 mm thick. There are 14 rectangular holes with dimensions of 17x6 mm on the arc plane, on the upper part there are two round holes with a diameter of 8 mm and an iron frame for a belt with dimensions of 40x10 mm; horseshoe horseshoe (Fig. 21: 4), dimensions 145x135 mm, width up to 30 mm, thickness up to 12 mm. Found along with part of the horse's hoof;
iron stirrups (15 specimens) (Fig. 21: 3). The arms are made of a rod (cross-sectional diameter of 10 mm), at the top twisted into a loop for putlis (40x10 cm). Stirrup height 165 mm, width 150 mm. At the top of the loop for putlische is a tin cylinder 40 mm long. The base is made of a strip of iron (125x55x25 mm, strip thickness 2 mm), vertical, connected to the arch with rivets with a diameter of 10 mm. Presumably, Cossack stirrups, Russia, the beginning of XX century .;
iron stirrup (Fig. 21: 2). The handle is made of a rod of rectangular cross-section (18x4 mm), on top there is a slot for putlis (40x7 cm). Stirrup height 165 mm, width 135 mm. Flattened base (135x60x8 mm), welded. The dimensions of the slot are 105x32 mm. The “French-style” stirrup adopted for the lower ranks of cavalry and horse artillery in 1911 (Klochkov 2015: 146), Russian Empire;
iron stirrup (Fig. 21: 1). The handle is made of a rod (cross-sectional diameter is 8 mm), on top there is a rectangular loop for putlis (38x14 cm). Stirrup height 156 mm, width 135 mm. Flattened base (112x60x6 mm), welded. The slot dimensions are 84x18 mm. A stirrup of 1888 for horse equipment of the lower ranks of cavalry and horse artillery (Klochkov 2015: 146), Russian Empire;
brackets for saddles (two copies) (Fig. 23: 1-2) are bent from plates connected by iron rivets, each with a segmented frame for belts. Dimensions 45x22 mm, plate thickness 2 mm;
the tip of the sheath of a dagger-bebut (Fig. 24: 1). It is made of a cone rolled copper plate sealed at the seam. Closer to the wide end there are two holes for the bracket with a diameter of up to 1 mm, below the holes there is a stamp in the form of the letter “A”, with the apex directed towards the tip of the dagger. The sheath tip ends with a soldered decorative brass sphere with a diameter of 14 mm, separated from the rest of the tip with a disk with a diameter of 12 mm and a thickness of 2 mm. The overall dimensions of the sheath tip are 78x36x11 mm, the thickness of the copper plate is 0.5 mm. There were fragments of the sheath itself inside it, in the form of two wooden plates covered in black leather.
The artillery dagger-bebut for the lower ranks (soldiers and non-commissioned officers) of the Russian Empire Army of 1907 was designed for delivering stabbing, chopping and cutting blows. The length of the blade with the handle is 59.5 cm, the length of the blade is 43.5 cm, the width of the blade at the heel is 3.8 cm, the length of the scabbard is 48.5 cm. In 1907, the dagger replaced the drafts of all the lower ranks of the gendarmes, except for the wahmists, ranks of serf gendarme teams and combat units. In 1908 he was adopted by the lower ranks of machine gun teams. In 1909 he replaced the checkers at all the lower ranks of the artillery troops, except for horse and equestrian artillery, as well as for sergeants and fireworks in the field foot, mountain and park artillery and trumpeters in the departments of foot artillery. In 1910 he was again replaced by checkers at the lower ranks of the gendarmes. In the same year it was adopted by the lower ranks of teams of equestrian reconnaissance infantry regiments. It was in use also after 1917. Bebuts of 1907 were produced in the Russian Empire by three weapons factories: Zlatoust, Izhevsk and Artinsky. The letter “A” on the tip of the sheath is the stamp of the inspector’s acceptance of the part, the initial letter of the name of the receiver of Zlatoust (http://zonwar.ru/xolodnoe/mss combat knife / Bebut.html);
brass fuse (Fig. 23: 5) for an artillery shrapnel projectile of 76 mm (three inches) in the form of a hemisphere with a conical "button" on top, with a diameter of 15 mm. Outside, a small notch along the perimeter, extruded letter "P" and the number "29". Diameter 48 mm, height 20 mm;
products (supports?) (two copies) from the joints of the long bones of ungulates (Fig. 27: 7, 8). On the one hand there are even cuts, embossed from prolonged use. Dimensions 42x40 mm and 65x40 mm;
fragments of the corolla and the bottom of the earthenware cup (Fig. 23: 9), at the bottom of the brand of the manufacturer (Italian Society of Ceramics in Laveno, Lombardy, Italy): eagle with spread wings and scrolls with the inscription: VERBANUM STONE / SCI / LAVENO. Such a green mark was used by this manufacturer in 1900-1924 gt. (https: / / www.maisonbibelot.com/it/asta-0122-2/dipinti-e-ceramiche-tra-otto- e-novecento-una-.asp? orderBy = titledesT Bottom diameter 50 mm;
cast iron decorative corner (Fig. 27: 4) (from furniture?) with a spike-leg. Dimensions 100x45x2 mm, leg length 50 mm, sub-square cross-section 14x13 mm;
pew spoon (Fig. 27: 6), the stalk is partially lost, the size is 13- x45 mm;
fragment of the bottom of a wine bottle (Fig. 27: 2) of dark green glass, diameter 80 mm, height 55 mm;
a fragment of the throat of a bottle (Fig. 27: 1) of colorless glass, strongly patinated (from fire?), diameter 30 mm, height 86 mm;
a tooth (Fig. 23: 7), decorative iron (from the gate grid?), forged, twisted along the long axis by half a turn, a cross-section is square 20x24 mm, oblique cuts made on the two opposite sides of the chisel (six each), tooth length 180 mm ;
an iron buckle (Fig. 24: 3), a frame measuring 32x30 mm, a cross-sectional diameter of 4 mm, a tongue length of 44 mm;
forged iron nails (Fig. 20: 1), length 90 and 136 mm, sizes of rectangular hats 17x16 and 26x15 mm;
forged iron door hinge (Fig. 23: 8), length 440 mm, width 18-60 mm, thickness 10 mm, wide end bent into a hinge with a diameter of 40 mm, narrow uninhibited in the form of a trapezoid 12x18-36 mm. Two holes for fasteners with a diameter of 10 mm;
padlock iron (Fig. 23: 10), in the form of a heart-shaped, dimensions 50x56x11 mm, arch 35x45 mm, its diameter 7 mm;
a fragment of decorative brick from a curved cornice (for a fireplace?), the longitudinal edge is decorated in the form of three protrusions (Fig. 28: 3), red color with traces of whitewashing, dimensions 160x122x54 mm;
yellow-pink brick, dent “BK 46” (Bendery fortress 1846) (Fig. 28: 1), dimensions 225x125x70 mm;
yellow-red brick, convex hallmark “BN 56” (Bendery 1856) (Fig. 28: 2), dimensions 265x135x70 mm;
four brass sleeves from cartridges for the Manlicher rifle (Fig. 26: 4) (Weiss factory, Budapest, 1918 - two copies; factory in Wollersdorf, Austria, 1916 - one copy; produced in Romania, 1906 - one copy );
five brass casings from cartridges for the Mosin rifle (Fig. 25: 2) (Tula plant, 1894 - one copy; St. Petersburg factory, 1890.1912, 1915 - only three copies; broken neck);
26 brass cartridges for Lebel’s rifle cartridges (Fig. 25: 1, 3; Fig. 26: 1-3) (Remington, USA, order of the French government, 1916 - one copy; SFM, France, without release dates (World War I) - two copies; French factories (Rennes, Versailles, Zhevelo and Gopil) 1914, - two copies; 1915 - one copy; 1916 - 12 copies (including one cartridge with a broken capsule, but not a bullet); 1917 - two copies; 1918 - six copies);
a brass cartridge sleeve for a 9 mm Browning pistol, factory in Hirtenberg, Austria, 1914 (Fig. 25: 1) (put on the neck of the aforementioned cartridge sleeve for the Lebel rifle, Rennes, France, 1916).
Numerous charred fragments of horse harness, charging boxes, shrapnel shells and high explosive (three-inch) gas masks (Fig. 9: 2), buckles, sheath-tip of dagger-bebut, sleeve, horse bones, including in anatomical joints (one leg bone right together with a horseshoe) were found in the lower part of horizon 4, among the remains of a fire in which the floorboards of the lower tier, probably at that time, were burnt. To date the horizon (or, at least, its lower part) is most reliably possible with the help of numerous (36 specimens) cartridges, the vast majority of which come from cartridges of the Lebel French rifle. According to the stamps on their bottoms, these cartridges were made in 1914-1918, and there are months - from January to May. Cartridges for the Manlicher rifle were made in 1906-1918, for the Mosin rifle in 1894-1915, for the Browning pistol in 1914. Thus, the terminus ante quern for this layer is the second half of 1918. But really it should date back a little later, given the time for delivery of the latest cartridges from France to Bendery. It should be noted that French troops were stationed in the city and fortresses on an ongoing basis at the very end of 1918 (Zaitsev 1971: 32). Tip of the sheath of a dagger-bebut of the sample of 1907, fragments of Italian faience of the first quarter of the XX century and other materials do not contradict this dating. The nature of the finds suggests a short time of formation of the layer, apparently as a result of some military operations. Note that the French troops left the fortress already in the second half of June 1919 (Zaitsev 1971: 76).
In our opinion, the only event corresponding to the dating of horizon 5 is the Bendery armed uprising on May 27, 1919. During this uprising, artillery shellings were both from the Romanian and French armies (from Borisovka and Khadzhimus), and from the Red Army (from the left banks of the Dniester) (Zaitsev 1971: 50-64). Rebels and Red Army soldiers were armed with the rifles of Mosin and Lebel, the Romanian and French units with the rifles of Mosin, Manlicher, Lebel. Two Romanian battalions occupying the fortress threw a white flag in the morning, but then, seeing the small number of attackers, refused to surrender when French troops broke through to them from Varnitsa (Krivorukov 1928: 28-30; For Soviet power ... 1967: 319-320; Zaitsev 1971: 54-55). French artillery fired at the water crossing of the Dniester in the immediate vicinity of the fortress (in the area of the railway bridge blown up on April 14, 1919). From the vicinity of the village Parkany from the dawn of May 27 they started firing “from heavy guns” at the fortress, two batteries of the Red Army artillery, which served as a signal for the rebels (For Soviet power ... 1967: 319; Zaitsev 1971: 50).
It can be assumed that as a result of hostilities (shelling?) in the tower (which, we recall, is the closest to the Dniester from all the towers of the citadel), a fire broke out, destroying, among other things, the floor of the lower tier at that time. Shells, at least most of them, could be the result of firing machine-gun fire from the loopholes of the upper tiers. Burnt metal parts of saddles, another horse harness, gas masks, stirrups lay quite compactly in the layer (closer to the entrance). It is most likely that by the time of the Bendery Uprising in the lower tier of the tower was a warehouse of military equipment stored in wooden boxes. Metal parts of such boxes were also found in large quantities during excavations. The burnt contents of the boxes, which fell through the burnt floorboards, were found by us at the entrance to the tower at the bottom of horizon 5. Some of the findings recorded above, including the bones of horses in the anatomical joints (and with horseshoes), were probably dumped in the tower later, in the process of cleaning the territory of the fortress after the hostilities. The question arises - why, immediately after the fire, the tower of the citadel, which had long lost its military significance and, by that time, was mainly the location of the command, was not repaired, but turned into a garbage dump, dumping pieces of horse corpses into it, among other things? Probably, the reason should be sought in the fact that the French command threw troops from the African colonies (zouaves) to suppress the uprising (supported by part of the French soldiers) (Krivorukov 1928: 28-30; For Soviet power ... 1967: 319-320; Zaitsev 1971: 54-55). They occupied key points in the city after May 27, including the fortress. Knowing that they would leave the territory of Bessarabia in a matter of days (Zaitsev 1971: 76), the Zouaves, obviously, were not particularly worried about the further use of the structures they left.
The upper part of the horizon 5 filling is mainly represented by fragments of bricks, including those with stamps of 1846, 1847 and 1856. (production of Bendery brick factories - see Zaitsev 1971: 9), and iron parts of heating furnaces. Probably, this construction waste remaining from the demolition of buildings of the XIX century on the territory of the fortress, in the 1920s - 1930s. Romanian soldiers made a pavement of the lower level of the tower at that time on top of the layer, deposited on May 27, 1919.
This horizon is represented by more than a meter layer of construction and household waste accumulated in the course of activities on the territory of the Bendery fortress of the Soviet army military units in the second half of the 20th century. We consider certain items of relatively good preservation to be mentioned separately:
steel sleeve (Fig. 25: 4) from the cartridge for a 5.56 mm Kalashnikov assault rifle; the year of manufacture due to corrosion cannot be read;
plexiglass product blank, dimensions 39x21x9 mm;
glass inkwell (Fig. 27: 3) with traces of violet ink, on the bottom of the stamp “СЗЗ”, dimensions 65x65x45 cm. Cover made of brown plastic, diameter 25 mm, height 15 mm. USSR, 1970s;
a bottle of colorless glass (Fig. 27: 9), at the bottom the mark “BSZ 85” (Bendery Glass Factory, 1985), size 240x70 mm, neck diameter 25 mm;
an iron button from a military uniform, heavily burned, a five-pointed star with a diameter of 22 mm is visible on the outside on aluminum;
the buckle from the pack box (Fig. 23: 4) is iron with an aluminum cylinder. Dimensions 38x38 mm, cross-sectional diameter 4 mm, tongue length 44 mm;
an iron buckle from a tarpaulin belt, with a gear lock, dimensions 50x35 mm, section diameter 4 mm.
The materials of horizon 5 show that from about the 1970s to the beginning of the 1980s, and until the 1990s inclusive, the lower tier of the South-East tower of the citadel of Bendery fortress was used as a landfill.
The study of the South-East tower of the citadel of the Bendery Fortress has shown, that at least that tower, probably as well as the whole citadel, was built not by Genoeses or Moldavian leaders, as some authors suggested, but by Turks during the reign of the Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent in the end of 1530s. This is evidenced by the study results of the tower’s first horizon.
The stratigraphic horizon 2 of the tower is previously dated back to 1584, because exactly in the beginning of that year by order of the Turkish sultan the Moldavian leader Peter Hromoi started the reconstruction of the fortifications, which were half ruined by invasions of Cossacks and Polacks: the inner moat was dug and the Lower Fortress was built. The clay loam from the moat was used to fill the lower tier of the South-East tower, as well as other towers of the citadel, to strengthen them against the undermining and siege artillery, that became stronger.
The horizon 3 is dated back to the last quarter of XVIII century. The damaged cannon balls and fire traces may be related to the siege and assault consequences of the fortress by the Russian army in 1770. The reconstruction of the lower tier of the tower was a part of a large scale reconstruction of the fortress by Turks under the guidance of French engineers in 1793-1794. Powerful radial “buttresses” and a central “pillar” had to hold a powerful wooden floor and a spiral staircase. Hidden in a special cavity (pit 1) cast iron grenades, covered by the fire layer, may be related to the siege of the fortress by Russian army in 1770 (most probably) or in 1789.
The formation of the horizon 4 is related to the events of the Bendery armed Rebellion against the Romanian and French invaders on May, 27 1919.
It can be assumed that in the result of shelling from the left bank of the river Dniester the fire began in the tower and destroyed the wooden floors. Numerous cartridge cases for Lebel, Manliheher, and Mosin rifles could remain after firing machine-gun fire from the loopholes of the upper tiers. The parts of the charging boxes, the horse harness remained from the military equipment starage that was in the tower before the fire. Numerous horse bones, fragments of three-inch artillery shells and other items were dumped into the tower a little later, in the process of cleaning the territory of the fortress after the fighting. These findings were blocked by construction waste from the 1920s and 1930s.
The materials of horizon 5 show that from about the 1970s to the beginning of the 1980s and until the 1990s inclusively, the lower tier of the South-East tower of the citadel of Bendery Fortress was used by the military personnel of the Soviet Army as a garbage dump.
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