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Most of the regiments that were part of the P. Panin’s Second Army were army units of the so-called Ukrainian line, created by Peter the Great to protect the southern borders of the country from the Tatars and Poles’ raids. As a rule, such regiments were land-police regiments, so-called colonized regiments, tied to a single, specific territory. There were many divisions in the land-police among the irregular regiments, but there were also those that were created by Bogdan Khmelnitsky: Little Russian and Company one were among them. Part of the regiments were the one of the new territorial entity -  New Serbia, created by immigrants from Serbia, namely Raiko Preradovich and I...

In the second half of the XVIII century, the Bendery fortress was a stronghold of Turkish rule in the Prut-Dniester region. On the eve and at the beginning of the Russian-Turkish war, which began in 1769, in Bendery there was the residence of seraskier, who commanded all the Turkish troops and garrisons of fortresses in Ochakov province, on the entire North-Western coast of the Black sea.The results of the campaign of 1769 caused serious discontent in St. Petersburg. The commander of the 1st Russian army, Prince A. Golitsyn, surrounded by Empress Catherine II, was accused of failing to take advantage of the results of his victories over the Turkish troops and develop a strategic success. Ind...

Памятные даты в истории города Бендеры и Бендерской крепости охватывают период с X века н.э., с момента первого упоминания крепости Тигина (Тункатай) на реке Днестр в византийских хрониках, вплоть до 2018 года, когда закончился еще один из значительных этапов реконструкции Бендерской крепости, начатой в 2007 году. В таблице приведены наиболее важные, по нашему мнению, даты или же временные периоды, наиболее важные в истории города и непосредственно крепости. № п/пДата, временной промежутокКраткое описание события в истории города и крепостиРасширенное описание 913-959 гг.Упоминание «пустой» крепости Тунгаты на р. Днестр ( с тюрк. Тун-катай- «Мирная крепость»...

In the course of systematization and study of sources, found in the Turkish archives (including new ones), and especially cartographic material (maps of 1770, 1789, 1790), 10 (ten) mosques were located on the territory of the Bendery fortress at the end of the XVIII century, i.e., their exact location was established. Also today, we know the name of some of them, as well as a description of the Main Cathedral mosque, including perhaps some information about their outward. Two mosques have been partially preserved to this day: one in the Gate Tower of the citadel, and the second in the middle tower on the Lower Fortress. These mosques are presented today in the form of mihrabs (prayer ambries...

Bender, the capital of Bessarabia is located on the river Dniester ... The fortress is notable only for the huge moat that surrounds it, since its fortifications were built very unreasonably. It surrendered during the last war, because the pasha, commander of the city, and the serasker, commander of the camp outside, were at odds with each other. The Janissaries were mainly engaged in trade and worried about their rich shops.We [the Russian army] found here 300 guns, 50 of which were iron, 25 mortars and 3 howitzers. The fortress was provided in abundance with gunpowder, kernels, rice, food, etc. There was 12-pound gun, which was donated to Emperor Leopold I by the city of Landau. On the muz...

12 декабря 1944 года Бендерская городская комиссия по расследованию злодеяний немецко-румынских захватчиков составила акт о том, что во рву Бендерской крепости были обнаружены расстрельные ямы (район Главных ворот по ул.Панина, напротив Памятника Русской Славы, прим. админ). При вскрытии ям в четырех местах обнаружено 58 трупов гражданского населения. Из них 8 детских, 28 женских и 22 мужских. Расстрел этих мирных граждан относится к периоду июль-сентябрь 1941 года. При обследовании останков были обнаружены сохранившиеся документы (советские паспорта,справки и другие, удостоверяющие личности расстрелянных граждан. При проверке сохранившихся документов установлено, что в числе расстрелянных б...

Молодые годы Карла XIIКарл XII родился в Стокгольме в королевском замке «Три короны» I июня 1682 г. Его родителями были Карл XI и Ульрика Элеонора Датская. Торжественное крещение младенца состоялось 12 июля. Он был наречен Карлом в честь отца и деда, Карла X Густава.Карл XI, отец принца, был хорошим монархом, проводивши удачные внутренние реформы на благо королевства. За годы своего правления (1672-1697) он ограничил власть высшей аристократии и стал самодержавным правителем Швеции, которая в то время была одной из самых могущественных стран Европы. Он оставил в наследство своему преемнику хорошо организованное государство с надежных финансов, мощной армией и относительно хорошим...

The article continues a series of works about the fortresses of the North-Western Black Sea region and the temples located there (and near that place), mainly Ottoman mosques, some of which were re-consecrated (some of them more than once) to Christian churches [1]. It describes the corresponding monuments of the Bendery fortress, to which the author has previously devoted a number of publications [2]. I would like to emphasize that there are no remains of pre-Ottoman Christian churches and its suburbs in the Bendery fortress, and the literary data about them [3], in my opinion, belong to the category of legends rather than historical facts. The earliest systematic "Description of the B...

 Chapter one. About the periodization2017 and 2018 are significant for us, not just like the epoch-making centenary dates that we celebrate. These dates require us not only to formally state facts and events, but also to pay even closer attention to them, to understand them in the light of the modern realities and of the rapidly changing world. Studying the past, we find answers to the burning questions of today. You understand this when you turn to a powerful historical layer of the first half of the 20th century, which included three Russian revolutions, two world wars, interventions, and the Civil War.In 2017, the 100th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution was celebr...

The need of the Russian people in spiritual life has always been great. This is especially true of the Russian soldier, whose whole life from birth to death was closely associated with the Church. Of course, the vast majority of military churches in the Russian Imperial army were Orthodox. However, we must not forget that in its essence the army was a multi-confessional. Therefore, in its structure there were many so-called Gentile churches, the construction of which was fully or partially financed from the military budget.An example of this is Kronstadt, where next to the Orthodox churches there were a mosque, two Lutheran churches, a Roman Catholic Church. The same picture was observed in ...

One might wonder but the well-known comic character Baron Munchausen in fact turned out to be an officer of Russian army and took part in a military campaign against Bendery. It is known how reverently the inhabitants of Bendery relate to their fortress, to its history and to everything connected with it. Therefore, the history of the stronghold is overgrown with various kinds of incredible stories, legends, tales, etc. Although the stories give a special flavor to the fortress, very often they are far from the truth. There are numerous fantastic stories about the underground tunnels, which go almost hundreds kilometers from the city. As for Minich with Munchausen and the unsuccessful a...

It’s quite difficult to gather materials about prisoners of war, especially about captured soldiers and officers of the Soviet army during the World War the Second, even for researchers who have access to the central archives and direct documentary sources. It’s not a secret to anyone that to the soldiers and officers of the Soviet army who were taken as prisoners, as well as the citizens of the USSR from among the civilians, who were taken to “join” the so-called “Great German civilization” and who went through all the horrors of slavery, and then, after exhaustion of physical and moral strength, thrown out to die in concentration camps, the attitude in t...

Attitude to the identity of Pilip (Philip) Orlik in Ukrainian and Russian historiography is extremely ambiguous. If in Ukrainian history his personality is connected only with the memorable events, in Russian history his name is closely connected with the name of the hetman of Ukraine, odious for many, Ivan Mazepa and the events that were connected with his fate: twenty years of loyal service to the Russian throne, the struggle for the complete independence of Ukraine, betrayal of the Russian Tsar Peter I, incitement of the Ukrainian Cossacks to treason, flight to Turkey, inglorious death. Whatever it was, but Pilip Orlik is one of the most interesting figures in Ukrainian history. He w...

What do the walls of the Bender fortress" tell " about? There is hardly a Pridnestrovian monument of history, whose legendarium would be richer than the Treasury of stories about Vender Kalesi. And let the last word not confuse fans of "game of thrones". So in Turkish it sounds familiar to us "Bender fortress". With this unique artifact of engineering is associated with many beliefs. Mazepa's Golden carriage, Mohammed's 90-carat diamond, Janissaries ' treasures buried in mysterious underground galleries and guarded by ghosts - such legends are kept by the inhabitants of Bender. It is said that the map of the fortress, stored in the Central Museum of the capital of Turkey, was closed for...

You can ask any self-respecting resident of the town Bendery what the Swedish king Charles XII and the Ukrainian hetman Mazepa, the minion of the Russian empress Potyomkin and the Russian rebel Emelyan Pugachev, have to do with our fortress, and you will receive an exhaustive reply. Many will proudly tell you that the well-known Baron Munchhausen made his flight on a cannonball here. And lovers of mystic will add that at full moon on the citadel appears the ghost of the wife of John-Voda the Lute with a baby in her arms, and disappears on the top of the fortress wall. And this is not surprising. An ancient castle should have its own history, its legends and riddles. And what a castle without...

Легенда о молдавской тарелочке (Злая Марюка)из книги Н.А. Маркса "Из истории Бендерской крепости". Одесса, 1917 год.Теперь никто не сидит у ворот старого замка.Забиты наглухо ворота, чтобы не расхитилилома, сваленного во дворе.12Нечего делать у ворот прошаку, незачем за-глядывать в Бендерскую крепость.И Петря Выздоагы забыл к ней дорогу. Сидитна базаре, поет Богородичин стих.- Ын нумеле Домнулуй дац че вэ ласы инима13.Прохожий остановится послушать Выздоагы,положит в его тарелочку медную монету.Сидит Выздоагы у прохода к лавкам, прислу-шивается к шагам.- Доамне милуеште, Господи помилуй.Больше горбится, когда узнает шаги городо-вого.Тырые брыу14.Когда в старину ходили янычары по базару,нароч...

After the defeat in the battle of Poltava (1709), Charles XII was forced to retreat to the Bendery town in the Ottoman Empire.The conflict known as the Great Northern War began in 1700. Swedish king Charles opposed Russian tsar Peter the Great, Danish king Frederick IV, and Saxon elector Augustus II. While Russia and Peter the Great were of much interest to Sweden, Denmark and Saxony were not. The most difficult test was the famous battle of Poltava on June 27, 1709, when 30,000 Swedes of Charles XII were defeated by almost twice the superior army of Peter the Great. The Russians then took several thousand prisoners, while Charles XII and his ally Hetman Mazepa managed to escape by crossing ...

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